MECHANICS
REVIEW
REVIEW
22ndndsemester,
semester,SY
SY2014-2015
2014-2015
Images from:http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/liquids/character.html
Solids
Liquids
Gas
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Classification
Classificationof
ofmatter
matter
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Fluid statics
Density
Pressure
Buoyancy
Fluid dynamics
Continuity equation
Bernoullis equation
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Whats
Whatsin
instore
storefor
forus?
us?
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FLUID PROPERTIES
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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids
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Density, (rho)
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Propertiesof
offluids
fluids
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Density
V
Units :
Material
Air (1 atm, 200 C)
Density, kg/m3
1.20
0.917 x 103
Blood
1.060 x 103
Seawater
1.024 x 103
Styrofoam
1 x 102
Gold
19.3 x 103
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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids
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9810 N/m3
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Propertiesof
offluids
fluids
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Propertiesof
offluids
fluids
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Propertiesof
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fluids
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Propertiesof
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fluids
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10
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Propertiesof
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fluids
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10-3 N.s/m2
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Propertiesof
offluids
fluids
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Temperature Dependency
The effect of
temperature on
viscosity is different for
liquids and gases.
The viscosity of liquids
decreases as the
temperature increases,
whereas the viscosity
of gases increases
with increasing
temperature; this trend
is also true for
kinematic viscosity
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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids
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13
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10-6 m2/s
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Propertiesof
offluids
fluids
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14
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fluids
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15
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Propertiesof
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fluids
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Vapor pressure
The pressure at which a liquid will vaporize, or
boil, at a given temperature.
Vapor pressure increases with temperature.
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fluids
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Problem 1.
Calculate the density and specific weight of
nitrogen at an absolute pressure of 1 MPa and
a temperature of 40C. (Gas constant, R, for
nitrogen = 297 J/kgK)
Answer:
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= 10.75 kg/m3
= 105.4 N/m3
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Propertiesof
offluids
fluids
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Problem 2.
A reservoir of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has a
mass of 500 kg and a volume of 0.35 m 3. Find
the carbon tetrachlorides weight, mass density,
specific weight, and specific gravity.
(CCl4=15.57)
Answer:
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W = 4905 N
= 15.57 kN/m3
= 1587 kg/m3
s = 1.59
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Propertiesof
offluids
fluids
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Principles of Hydrostatics
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Fluid
FluidStatics
Statics
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Pressure
F
p
A
Useful Units :
1 Pa = 1 N/m2
1 atm = 101,325 Pa
= 760 Torr
=1,013 mbar
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Fluid
FluidPressure
Pressure
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p2 p1 h
p2 = pressure at some depth h2
p1 = pressure at some depth h1
= unit weight of the fluid
h = difference in depth between h2 and h1.
* With the assumption that g is uniform all throughout the fluid.
Pressure below > Pressure above
Pressure is the same at all points at the same depth of the fluid.
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Fluid
Fluidpressure
pressure
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y
p(y)
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Fluid
Fluidpressure
pressure
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Example:
A U tube contain immiscible liquids of density
1 and 2. Compare the densities of the
liquids.
h
At the bottom, both liquids have the same pressure.
At the top, both are in equilibrium with the atmosphere.
At the interface, both have the same pressure as well.
So from the Pressure-Depth relation:
p p0 2 gh p p0 1 g h d
p0 2 gh p0 1 g h d
hd h
hd
2 h 1 h d 2 1
2 1
h
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Fluid
Fluidpressure
pressure
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Pascals Principle
Pressure applied to an
enclosed fluid is transmitted
undiminished to every portion of
the fluid and to the walls of the
containing vessel.
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Pressure
Pressureapplied
appliedto
tofluid
fluid
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F1
p
A1
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A1
Larger than
F1
A2
F2
F1
A1
p is transmitted
through the larger
piston
Pascals
Pascalsprinciple
principle
F2 F1
p
A2 A1
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Problem 3.
A hydraulic jack has
the dimensions
shown. If one exerts
a force F of 100 N on
the handle of the
jack, what load, F2,
can the jack
support? Neglect
lifter weight.
Answer: F2=12.2 kN
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Fluid
Fluidpressure
pressure
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Pressure Measurements
5 scientific instruments
for measuring pressure:
1.Barometer A mercury
barometer is made by
inverting a mercury-filled
tube in a container of
mercury.
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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure
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Pressure Measurements
5 scientific instruments
for measuring pressure:
2.Bourdon-tube gage measures pressure by
sensing the deflection of
a coiled tube.
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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure
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Pressure Measurements
5 scientific instruments
for measuring pressure:
3.Piezometer - is a vertical
tube, usually transparent, in
which a liquid rises in
response to a positive gage
pressure
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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure
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Pressure Measurements
5 scientific instruments for measuring
pressure:
4.Manometer - often shaped like the letter U, is a
device for measuring pressure by raising or
lowering a column of liquid
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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure
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Pressure Measurements
5 scientific instruments for measuring
pressure:
5.Transducer - is a device that converts pressure to
an electrical signal. Modern factories and systems
that involve flow processes are controlled
automatically, and much of their operation involves
sensing of pressure at critical points of the system
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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure
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Problem 4.
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Pressure Measurements
Pressure measurements are always done with
respect to the pressure of the surroundings.
= atmospheric pressure
Pgage
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shape.
A description of the pressure at all points along a
surface is called a pressure distribution.
When pressure is the same at every point, the
pressure distribution is called a uniform pressure
distribution.
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Measuring
Measuringpressure
pressure
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pressure
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Measuringpressure
pressure
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Problem 5.
Determine the force acting on one side of a
concrete form 2.44 m high and 1.22 m wide that is
used for pouring a basement wall. The specific
weight of concrete is 23.6 kN/m3.
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Hydrostatic
Hydrostaticpressure
pressure
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Problem 6.
An elliptical gate covers the
end of a pipe 4 m in diameter.
If the gate is hinged at the top,
what normal force F is
required to open the gate
when water is 8 m deep
above the top of the pipe and
the pipe is open to the
atmosphere on the other
side? Neglect the weight of
the gate.
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Hydrostatic
Hydrostaticpressure
pressure
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Hydrostatic
Hydrostaticpressure
pressure
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Problem 7.
Surface AB is a circular arc with a
radius of 2 m and a width of 1 m into
the paper. The distance EB is 4 m.
The fluid above surface AB is water,
and atmospheric pressure prevails
on the free surface of the water and
on the bottom side of surface AB.
Find the magnitude and line of
action of the hydrostatic force acting
on surface AB.
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Hydrostatic
Hydrostaticpressure
pressure
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Buoyancy
A buoyant force is defined as the upward
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy
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Buoyancy
Apparent weight loss of an object when totally/partially
immersed in a fluid
Lower Pressure
mg
FB
Higher Pressure
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Properties
Propertiesof
offluids
fluids
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Question:
Based on the summation of forces, therefore, what makes an
object sink, float or hover?
Sink
FB Wobj
f obj
FB Wobj
f obj
FB Wobj
f obj
(accelerate downwards)
Float
(accelerate upwards)
Hover
(stay at the same level)
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy
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Example:
What fraction of the iceberg afloat in seawater is visible from
the surface?
Viceberg = total volume of iceberg
Vfluid,disp. = equal to the submerged portion of the iceberg
= Vsub
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy
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Hence, the buoyant force equals the weight of liquid that would be
needed to occupy the volume . This volume is called the displaced
volume.
For a fluid of uniform density, the line of action of the buoyant force
passes through the centroid of the displaced volume.
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy
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Archimedes Principle
When a body is fully or partially submerged in a fluid, a
buoyant force from the surrounding fluid acts on the
body.
The buoyant force is directed UPWARD and has a
magnitude equal to the WEIGHT of the displaced FLUID
by the body.
The line of action of FB passes through the CG of the displaced fluid,
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy
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Immersed Bodies
When a body is completely immersed in a liquid, its stability
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy
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Immersed Bodies
Conditions of Stability
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy
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Floating Bodies
Consider the cross section of a ship. Here the center of gravity G is above
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Buoyancy
Buoyancy
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