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Electromagnetic

Radiation

Waves a review
Most

waves are either


longitudinal or transverse.
Sound waves are longitudinal.
But all electromagnetic waves
are transverse

What does this picture show about the


relationship between frequency and
wavelength?

Types of EM Radiation
Radiowaves

lowest energy EM radiation

Electromagnetic waves
Produced

by the movement of
electrically charged particles
Can travel in a vacuum (they do
NOT need a medium)
Travel at the speed of
light
Also known as EM waves

Radio waves
Longest

wavelength EM waves

Uses:

TV broadcasting
AM and FM broadcast radio
Heart rate monitors
Cell phone communication
MRI (MAGNETIC RESONACE IMAGING)

Uses Short wave radio waves with a magnet to create an image

Microwaves
Wavelengths

from 1 mm- 1 m

Uses:

Microwave ovens
Bluetooth headsets
Broadband Wireless Internet
Radar
GPS

Infrared Radiation
Wavelengths

in between microwaves
and visible light
Uses:

Night vision goggles


Remote controls
Heat-seeking missiles

Visible light
Only type of EM wave able to
be detected by the human eye
Violet is the highest frequency
light
Red light is the lowest
frequency light

Ultraviolet

Shorter wavelengths than visible light

Uses:

Black lights
Security images on money
Harmful to living things
Used to sterilize medical equipment
Too much causes sun burn

Extremely high exposure can cause skin cancer

X-rays

Tiny wavelength, high


energy waves

Uses:

Medical imaging
Airport security

Moderate dose can damaging to cells

Gamma Rays

Smallest wavelengths, highest energy EM


waves

Uses

Sterilizes medical equipment


Cancer treatment to kill cancer cells

Kills nearly all living cells.

About

150 yrs ago, James Clerk


Maxwell, an English scientist,
developed a scientific theory to
explain electromagnetic waves.

He

noticed that electrical fields and


magnetic fields can couple together
to form electromagnetic waves.

Neither

an electrical field, nor a


magnetic field will go anywhere
by themselves.

But,

maxwell discovered that a


CHANGING magnetic field will induce a
CHANGING electric fields

An

electromagnetic wave exist when


the changing magnetic fields
causes a changing electric fields,
which then causes another changing
magnetic fields and so on forever.

Unlike

a static field, a wave cannot


exist unless it is moving. Once
created, an electromagnetic wave
will continue on forever unless it is
absorbed by matter.

Heinrich

Hertz, a german physicist,


applied Maxwells theories to the
production and reception of
radiowaves.

The

unit of frequency of radio waves


one cycle per secondis named
the Hertz, in honor of heinrich hertz.
Hertz proved the existence of
radiowaves in the late 1880s.

He

used two rods to serve as a


receiver and a spark gap as the
receiving antennae. Where the
waves were picked up, a spark would
jump. Hertz showed in his
experiments that these signals
possessed all of the properties of
electromagnetic waves.

With this oscillator, hertz solved


two problems
.

First, timing Maxwell's wave. He had


demonstrated, in the concrete, what
Maxwell had only theorized-that the
velocity of radio waves is equal to the
velocity of light.(this proved radio
waves were a form of light.
Second, hertz found out how to make
the electric and magnetic fields detach
themselves from wires and go free as
Maxwell's waves

Maxwell-

accelerating charges emit


electromagnetic radiation