Recruitment & Selection


Recruitment & Selection

Strategic Issues in Staffing 
Make or buy decisions  Integration with firm strategy and other HR systems  Effect of external environment on staffing  Extent of use of untapped labor sources and contingent workers  Extent of use of technology in staffing  Hire for job or for organization or both? 

Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Model

Locating, identifying, and attracting applicants to an organization  Good recruitment processes generate large enough pools of qualified individuals so that satisfactory applicants may be selected  Additional purposes: screening applicants, sell organization to applicants, and build organizational reputation

Steps in Recruitment 
Situational and job analysis  List criteria for assessing potential candidates (KSAO¶s)  Identify sources and utilize techniques of recruitment (internal vs. external)  Evaluate the recruitment process

Recruitment Process
Human Resource Plan

Recruiter and Manager Review Job Description and Specifications

Check Internal Sources

Contact External Sources

Follow up and Evaluation

Recruitment Sources 
Internal Sources 

External Sources 

Current employees Friends/family of current employees Former employees Previous applicants 

Advantages  Disadvantages 

Advertising in media School/college recruiting Employment agencies Unions and trade associations Internet 

Advantages  Disadvantages

What are recruiters looking for in an applicant? 
Kristof-Brown article of P-J and P-O fit 

What do recruiters look for in P-J fit? What do recruiters look for in P-O fit? Can recruiters distinguish between the two? Does P-J or P-O fit have more impact on hiring recommendations? What other findings were revealed about recruiter decision making?

What are applicants looking for in terms of jobs and recruitment practices? 
Boswell et al. 2003 tracked job choice decisions of applicants as they unfolded 

What factors affect job choices? Do these change during the job choice process? What impact does treatment during the recruitment process have? What are the effects of deadlines for job decisions?

Summary of Important Aspects of Recruitment Process 
Recruiter qualities: demographics, job held, personality/behavioral traits, attitudes, training  Content of the recruitment message: organized and informative about job and organization  Applicant perceptions: communication during the process; relationship building is important early in process; delays and no follow up are negative factors; deadlines for job decisions don¶t matter  Quality of site visit is important to applicant  Organizational characteristics such as reputation, location, firm size, and industry matter

Evaluation of Recruitment 
   Yield ratios Yield ratios by source Time lapse data Others  recruitment cost per hire  individual recruiter activity/efficiency  analysis of geographical source  number of minority/women applicants per source  applicant satisfaction

Contemporary Challenges to the Recruitment Process 
Jobs and organizations are ³moving targets´  Increasingly under-skilled workforce for jobs available  Workers¶ needs for work/life balance  Solutions: 

Casting a wider net: consider global outsourcing Capitalizing on technology School/employer partnerships Creating a better place to work

Selection Process 
The collection and evaluation of information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment or promotion to another position  Legal, socio-economic, educational, political, and scientific factors affect selection processes  Knowledge of HR staff and costs also play a role

Steps in the Selection Process 
Job and organizational Analysis  Develop selection criteria (KSAO¶s)  Choose/develop selection instruments 

Ensure validity, reliability, utility, and fairness 

Collect data on each candidate  Analyze data and select candidate

Typical Selection Methods 
Evaluate on 

Validity Cost Ease of administration Adverse impact on protected groups Applicant acceptance

Typical Selection Methods 
Application Blanks and Resumes (Bio-data)  Reference and Background Checks  Physical Ability Tests  Standardized Cognitive Tests 


Work Samples Interviews Personality Tests Assessment Centers Honesty Testing Drug Testing

Current Selection Issues 
Work characteristics affect the extent of use and what kinds of selection methods that are used by employers (Wilk & Capelli, 2003)
Skill Requirements Amount of Training Pay Levels Testing Performance Academic Achievement Work Experience Testing Performance Academic Achievement Testing Performance Work Experience

Current Selection Issues 
Current and future trends (Lievens et al., 2002) 

Effects of labor market shortages
‡ Fit perspectives and marketing perspectives 

Technological developments
‡ Computerized testing, virtual reality testing, internet recruiting ‡ Little research available on effectiveness, adverse impact, equivalence to paper-pencil methods, effects on privacy concerns

Current Selection Issues 
Current and future trends (Lievens et al., 2002) 

Applicant perceptions of the process
‡ Has practical consequences in terms of motivation and performance in the selection situation, applicant attraction to the organization, socialization of new hires, etc. 

Validity approaches
‡ Need more focus on construct validity: understanding the underlying attributes that methods are measuring ‡ Examples: Big Five Personality, AC dimensions, situational interviews, structured vs. unstructured interviews

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