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The centre of flotation (F) is at the geometric centre of the water plane
area. The centre of buoyancy (B) is at the geometric centre of the
underwater volume. The centre of gravity is at G. Their longitudinal
positions are seldom the same. Usually F is abaft of B at any given
draught. But B & G are vertically in one line. If B & G are not in one
vertical line, a ship will trim till B & G are in one vertical line. A ship The
builder provides 'the relevant information for B & F in curve or tabular




For a box shape vessel on even keel B, G & F are vertically in line. So
when it passes from SW to FW, it merely sinks more & B changes, G
stays same, F moves up but stays in same vertical line in a new horizontal
plane i.e new WPA.
The sketch shows a ship on an even keel, in salt water, on waterline WL.
ln this condition B is vertically below G. On passing into FW (or water
less density than SW) the ship will (first) sink bodily to W1L1. This new
waterline can be assumed to have the centre of flotation as F1. The added
layer of buoyancy due to the sinkage (as shown) will have its centroid at
'b' . The addition of a layer of buoyancy at 'b' causes B to move to some
position up and towards 'b' to a point B1.

Because B1 is out of line with G a trimming couple exits, which causes

the ship to trim till 'B1' is again vertically below 'G'. This new
waterline is represented by W2L2.
(i) Find the bodily sinkage : this will be the FWA (= W/TPC) if the
ship is passing from SW to FW. In other cases it will be the dock
allowance or a proportion of the FWA.
(ii) Calculate the weight of this layer of buoyancy acquired at b.
This is (sinkage x TPC) tonnes.
The value of TPC must be for the fresh water (or dock water).
(iii) Find the trimming moment = (weight of layer x horizontal distance
B to b) tonne.metres. (Note: Distance B b = (LCB ~ LCF)
(iv) Find the change of trim = moment/MCTC
Proportion the change of trim to find Tf and Ta according to the
position of LCF.
The above method avoids the need to calculate the position B 1 but if B1 is
known, or determined, the trimming moment can be given by ( W x B B 1
horizontally or W x GB1). The shift BB1 can be found by taking moments,
about B.
Thus moment of added layer = moment of total displacement x distance BB1
Therefore volume of layer x bB = total volume displacement x B B1
or BB1 = volume of layer x bB1
total volume of displacement
( and bB is of course (LCB ~ LCF)).
The volume of the layer is always the difference between the volumes
displaced in two different densities. In the greater (original) density d1 the
volume is (V/d1).
In the lesser (final) density d2 the volume is (V/d2 ) and the
volume of the layer = ( W/d2 - W/d1) m3 = W ( d1 - d2 ) m3
d1 x d2
Sinkage/Rise = FWA or DWA depending on density of second liquid.
COT cms = W ( RD1 - RD2) (LCF -LCB)

+ by stern

- by head