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St.

Thomas College of Engineering


and Technology
Subject: Technical report writing
Topic: Role of Transformers in Power System

Group members:
Debojyoti Mukherjee-37
Sayantan mondal-38
Sourav mondal-42
Yogesh Kumar verma-62

Definition of Transformer
A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from
one circuit to another without changing frequency. It also transfers
electrical energy between two or more circuits through principle of
electromagnetic induction. Commonly, transformers are used to
increase or decrease the voltages of alternating current in electric
power applications.

Types of transformer
Step up transformer
If the no. of turns on the secondary is more than the no. of turns on
the primary windings, then the secondary voltage is more than the
primary winding. This type of transformer is called step up
transformer.

Step down transformer


If the no. of turns on the secondary is less than the no. of turns on
the primary windings, then the secondary voltage is more than the
primary winding. This type of transformer is called step down
transformer.

Applications of power transformer


It can rise or lower the level of level of Voltage or
Current ( when voltage increases, current
decreases and vice versa because P =V x I, and
Power is same ) in an AC Circuit.
It can increase or decrease the value of capacitor,
an inductor or resistance in an AC circuit. It can
thus act as an impedance transferring device.
It can be used to prevent DC from passing from
one circuit to the other.

It can isolate two circuits electrically.


Signal and audio transformers are used to couple
stages of amplifiers and to match devices such as
microphones and record players to the input of
amplifiers.
Transformers are also used extensively in electronic
products to decrease (or step-down) the supply voltage
to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they
contain.

Power Transmission
1.Generate the electricity: different generators produce
different voltages, but a very rough typical value might be
1,000 volts.
2.Increase voltage via a step-up transformer at an
electrical station near the power plant, up to maybe
500,000 volts.
3.Send electricity long distance over high-voltage
transmission lines.
4.Decrease voltage at a local substation via a step-down
transformer to perhaps 3,000 volts .

5.Send electricity a few miles via "telephone poles" (or


underground cables.
6.Divert some electricity to an individual building,
decreasing the voltage to 240 volts with another stepdown transformer.
7.When it first enters the building, run electricity through
a fuse-box or set of circuit breakers. Most of the wiring
inside the house is arranged so that it makes use of only
120 volts.

Basic formulas of transformer

Why High Voltage is Used in Transmission System?


Small Conductor Size: Let us consider we have to transmit a
power of W watts over a distance L. Now consider two
situations
a) Power is being transmitted in line at V volts
a) Power is being transmitted in line at 2V volts
We know that P=VI,
Where
P=Power in the system
V=Voltage of the line
I=Current in the line
in first case I=P/V=k(say) but for second case I=P/2v=k/2.
Hence double the voltage level half will be the current in the line.

We know that for a small current small area of cross section of the
conductor is required as transmission lines are designed at a constant
current density (Current/Area). This shows that increase in
transmission voltage will result in reduction of conductor area and
hence conductor weight. Thus an increase in voltage level will result in
saving of conductor cost.
Reduction In Copper Losses : We know that Copper Losses, Pc =
I2R
Where, Pc = Copper loss in transmission Line
I=Current in Line
and R= Resistance of Line.
Now resistance of line is constant (once installed) so if we increase
voltage level then this will reduce the copper losses in the transmission
line which further result in saving of power and ultimately saving of
money.

Better Voltage Regulation : Voltage Regulation is given


by the formula, VReg=(Vnl-Vfl)/Vfl
Where Vnl= Voltage at no load
Vfl= Voltage at full load
For a transmission line Vfl=Vnl-VDrop
VDrop being drop at the transmission line and this is given
by VDrop=I*R, now if I is reduced in line then Voltage
regulation will be reduced and operation of machines and
line will be good.

If we can generate power at high voltage and why we


cant use it at high voltage level?
It is not possible due to insulation problems in
generators and also due to safety reasons this is not
practical. Also our systems are designed for a low
voltage so it can not be generated or consumed at very
high level.

Limitations to Voltage Level in Transmission


System
As insulation is a big issue. We use transformers which has
to withstand the voltage in the line but there is only a limited
voltage for which insulation can be provided.
Further if we increase voltage then for very high voltage
we'll require high steel tower and at a point cost of installing
line will be more then cost saved due to high voltage. Hence
,these things limit the voltage level in transmission line.

Circuit diagram of a Transformer

Role of transformers in power system


Energy is lost in the process of transmitting electricity long
distances, such as during the journey from a power plant to
us.
Less energy is lost if the voltage is very high, so electrical
utilities use high voltage in long-distance transmission wires.
However, this high voltage is too dangerous for home use.
Electrical utilities use transformers to change the voltage of
electricity as it travels from the power plant to us.
The voltage of electricity coming from the power plant is
"stepped up" using transformers to the right level for longdistance transmission. Later, the voltage is stepped down
before it enters your home - once again using transformers.

for power distribution ,voltages must be stepped up before power is


transmitted great distances over power lines.
One major problem is that power is lost between the power plant and
the consumers because currents use some of the power to heat the
transmission lines.
The power transmitted along the line is equal to the voltage times
the current. The higher the voltage the lower the current that must
flow within the transmission lines to deliver the same power.
Lower currents produce much less heating and much less power
loss. Of course, the high voltages (needed to drive the low currents)
must be stepped back down before power is supplied to our homes.

THANK YOU