You are on page 1of 28

COLD SPRAY PROCESS

COLD SPRAY PROCESS By-: Rishabh Ranjan 3143515 M.Tech (I.P).

By-:

Rishabh Ranjan

3143515

M.Tech (I.P).

CONTENTS

History. Introduction. Principle. Needs. Process Parameters Cu coating. Advantages. Applications. Case Study. Refrences.

HISTORY

Dr Antolli Papyrin of Russian Academy of Sciences was the first to demonstrate the cold spray process in the mid-1980s.[1]

INTRODUCTION

Cold Spraying is a material deposition technique.

Powder Particles( 10-50 µm) are accelerated to supersonic gas jet velocity(350-

1000m/s).

He and N are used as process gases.

De Laval Nozzle is used.

Plastic Deformation occurs due to ‘Adiabatic Shear Instabilities’.

PRINCIPLE [4]

PRINCIPLE [4]

NEEDS

For depositing temperature sensitive materials.

For depositing oxygen sensitive materials.

Precise amount of deposition in surface(spray beam ~5mm diameter).

Corrosion Resistant Coatings (Zn, Al).

Wear Resistant Coatings (CrC-NiCr, WC-Co, WCu).

PROCESS PARAMETERS[5]

Jet Pressure

1-3(Mpa).

Jet Velocity

350-1000(m/s)

Jet Temperature

0-700C.

Gas Flow Rate

1-2(m3/min).

Powder Flow Rate

2-8(Kg/h).

Spray Distance

10-50mm.

Particle Size

10-50 µm.

Expression for Critical velocity-:[2]

• Expression for Critical velocity-:[2] Cp-Particle specific heat. Tm-Particle melting temperature. ρ –Particle density. σ –

Cp-Particle specific heat. Tm-Particle melting temperature. ρ p –Particle density. σ TS Particle Tensile Strength. T pi -Particle Impact Temperature.

Cu COATING BY COLD SPRAYING[3]

Cu powder (<45 μm) is used.

Al 2017 is used as substrate.

Nitrogen is used as the process gas.

Gas temperature is 500°C and the gas flow rate is 65m³/h.

Gun speed -300 m/s.

SPRAYING CONDITIONS AND PROPERTIES

SPRAYING CONDITIONS AND PROPERTIES

RESULTS

Coating D has higher Ra value compared to others as powder flow rate is more.

For same flow rates and increased pressure for A and B, Ra decreases.

For same pressure and increased flow rate in C and D, Ra increases.

COATING MICROSTRUCTURE

COATING MICROSTRUCTURE • Aspect ratio, (ε), It is use to evaluate particle’s deformability. ε = (d-h)/d
COATING MICROSTRUCTURE • Aspect ratio, (ε), It is use to evaluate particle’s deformability. ε = (d-h)/d

Aspect ratio, (ε),

It is use to evaluate particle’s deformability.

ε = (d-h)/d

(1)

Where d = (b2·h) 1/3

(2)

The particles’ original dimension d was computed by equation (2), The particle’s deformability (aspect ratio, ε) was approximately 0.41 ± 0.13

COATING MICROSTRUCTURE • Aspect ratio, (ε), It is use to evaluate particle’s deformability. ε = (d-h)/d
• It was found that coatings of higher thickness (C and D) had lower microhardness values

It was found that coatings of higher thickness (C and D) had lower microhardness values at about 40-50 HV0.3 than the coatings A and B.

CONCLUSIONS

Coatings with 4 passes, exhibited twins and decreased micro hardness compared to

the other two (with 1 pass ). Coating is very dense, with negligible oxygen content and absence of cracks.

ADVANTAGES

Low thermal load on materials (typically: substrate 50-250°C, spray material 50-

900°C).

Deposition efficiencies (DE’s) of more than 90 % .

Depositon rate 1-8 kg/h, up to 15 kg/h.

Focussed spray jet (d=4-8 mm), coating thickness 100 µm.

Deformation induced compressive residual stress in the coating.

Electrical and thermal conductivity of coatings can reach more than 90 % of bulk material.

APPLICATIONS

Corrosion Protection for automotive body and chassis structures.

Electromagnetic Interference Shielding.

Heat dissipation for microelectronics.

US army is using this technology to repair its helicopters.[4]

Antistick Coatings(PTFE).

Repair of Ti hydraulic line

CASE STUDY[6]

Microstructure, Mechanical Properties,and Two-Body Abrasive Wear Behavior of Cold-Sprayed 20 vol.% Cubic BN-NiCrAl Nanocomposite Coating. Journal of Thermal Spray Technology (Submitted October 28, 2013; in revised form February 23, 2014)

Xiao-Tao Luo, Er-Juan Yang, Fu-Lin Shang, Guan-Jun Yang, Chen-Xin Li, and Chang-Jiu Li. State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi China

INTRODUCTION

20 vol.% cubic boron nitride (cBN) dispersoid reinforced NiCrAl matrix nanocomposite coating was prepared by cold spraying.

Atomized NiCrAl alloy (79Ni-16Cr-5Al,wt.%) powder(50-100um) and CBN

powder(0.5-1um) are used as raw materials. Nanostructured composite powder is prepared by mechanical alloying.

1Cr18Ni9 austenite stainless steel (SS) plates with a thickness of 3 mm is used as substrates.

Table-

INTRODUCTION • 20 vol.% cubic boron nitride (cBN) dispersoid reinforced NiCrAl matrix nanocomposite coating was prepared
INTRODUCTION • 20 vol.% cubic boron nitride (cBN) dispersoid reinforced NiCrAl matrix nanocomposite coating was prepared

Mechanical Properties Measurement

Vickers microhardness test was performed on polished nanocomposite coating.

load applied 3N and the dwelling time 30 s.

Average hardness value was determined based on 10 indentations. Fracture toughness was measured based on a Vickers hardness indentation method.

Microstructure Characterization

X ray diffraction (XRD) used to identify phase composition of spray powder and nanocomposite coating.

SEM and TEM used to characterise microstructure and ceramic particle size distribution.

Two-Body Dry Abrasive Wear Test

Test is done Pin-on-disk tester under load of 30 N.

700μm nanocomposite coating deposited at the bottom of the pins.

Sample surface is grounded with SiC abrasive papers(3280-3400HV) and polished with 500nm diamond polishing agent.

The pin surface slided for 9.64m against the fresh abrasive paper surface.

Table-

Two-Body Dry Abrasive Wear Test • Test is done Pin-on-disk tester under load of 30 N.
Two-Body Dry Abrasive Wear Test • Test is done Pin-on-disk tester under load of 30 N.
Two-Body Dry Abrasive Wear Test • Test is done Pin-on-disk tester under load of 30 N.

RESULT: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Micro hardness of as-sprayed 20 vol.% cBN-NiCrAl coating is ~1063 ± 67 HV.

After annealing at 750 C for 5 h hardness is 997 ± 43 HV.

Hardness of HVOF prepared WC-Co with WC volume fraction ranging from 65%

forWC-17Co to 75% for WC-12Co was reported to be ~1000-1200 HV. cBN-NiCrAl didn’t break even at 196 N load on Vickers Test while of HVOF prepared WC-12Co cracked at 50 N load.

RESULT : TWO BODY ABRASIVE TEST

RESULT : TWO BODY ABRASIVE TEST Comparison of wear rate for the as-sprayed, heat-treated cBN-NiCrAl nanocomposite

Comparison of wear rate for the as-sprayed, heat-treated cBN-NiCrAl nanocomposite and HVOF-sprayed WC-12Co coating

RESULT: TWO BODY ABRASIVE TEST

RESULT: TWO BODY ABRASIVE TEST Worn surface of the as-sprayed (a) and (b), and 750 C/5

Worn surface of the as-sprayed (a) and (b), and 750 C/5 h heat treated (c) and (d)

RESULT: MICROSTRUCTURE TEST

RESULT: MICROSTRUCTURE TEST XRD patterns of 20 vol.% cBN-NiCrAl spray powder, as-sprayed coating and 750 C/5

XRD patterns of 20 vol.% cBN-NiCrAl spray powder, as-sprayed coating and 750 C/5 h annealed coating

Grain size and microstrain of NiCrAl matrix

RESULT: MICROSTRUCTURE TEST

RESULT: MICROSTRUCTURE TEST Cross-sectional microstructure of 20 vol. % cBN-NiCrAl nanocomposite coating Microstructure of 750 C/5

Cross-sectional microstructure of 20 vol. % cBN-NiCrAl

nanocomposite coating

RESULT: MICROSTRUCTURE TEST Cross-sectional microstructure of 20 vol. % cBN-NiCrAl nanocomposite coating Microstructure of 750 C/5

Microstructure of 750 C/5 h annealed 20 vol.% cBNNiCrAl

nanocomposite coating

CONCLUSIONS

No phase transformation and grain growth of the NiCrAl matrix occurred during the spraying process.

Vickers hardness is 1063 HV comparable to HVOF WC-12Co ceramic composite.

with 75%

Fracture toughness higher than HVOF WC-12Co. Inter-particle bonding enhanced. Increment of wear resistance by ~33%.

REFRENCES

http://www.asminternational.org/content/TSS/JTST/jtst_07_02_304.pdf[1] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S025789721400869X[2] Shipbuilding Technology Laboratory, School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece[3]

http://www.arl.army.mil/www/default.cfm?page=375[4]

Handbook of Thermal Spray Technology, edited by Joseph R. Davis[5] http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11666-014-0092-3/fulltext.html[6]

THANK YOU