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Arc Welding Basics

Unit Topics
Topics included in this overview
are:
Introduction
What is Arc Welding?
Why is Welding Important?
Why Learn to Weld?

Careers in Welding
The American Welding
Society (AWS)
Welding Safety
Basic Electricity
Welding Fundamentals
Welding Certification
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Objectives
Upon successful completion of this unit of study, you will
be able to

Identify definitions and terminology associated with welding


Demonstrate safe working habits in the welding environment
Name the parts and types of welds and weld joints
Interpret basic welding symbol information
Identify opportunities available to welders

Introduction

What is Arc Welding?


Arc welding is most commonly used to join two
pieces of metal
The welder creates an electric arc that melts the
base metals and filler metal (consumable) together
so that they all fuse into one solid piece of metal

Steel Pipe Tack


Welded

Root Pass or
Stringer Bead

Final weld after


several beads are
made
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Why is Welding Important?


Many things around us are welded
Pipelines that bring fresh water
Towers that carry electricity to houses
Cars and buses that take people where they need to go

Why Learn to Weld?


Welding is so HOT . its COOL!
Welding can help build a successful career so you
can get the things you want in life
Skilled welders are in demand people use things
that are welded everyday!
Welding can be fun and safe
It is challenging and high-tech

Basic Steps of Arc Welding

Prepare the base materials: remove paint and rust


Choose the right welding process
Choose the right filler material
Assess and comply with safety requirements
Use proper welding techniques and be sure to protect
the molten puddle from contaminants in the air
Inspect the weld

The American Welding Society


Who is the AWS?
American Welding Society
It is a non-profit organization whose membership includes:
Individuals
Students
Companies

What do they do?


Their purpose is to:
Advance the science, technology, and application of welding and allied
processes including: joining, brazing, soldering, cutting, and thermal spray
Standardize classification of electrode and base material codes
Standardize process procedures
Provide welding certification

Careers in Welding

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Careers in Welding
Job opportunities in welding are changing
Welding can be valuable as a job skill or as a full-time job

Engineering
Racing
Industrial Sales
Farm Repair and Fabrication
Production Welding
Military
Teaching
Maintenance

Robotics
Ironworker/ Skilled Trades
Auto Technician
Artist
Metal Sculpting
Owning Your Own Business

For more information on welding careers, please see the elearning introduction
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How Much Money


Can You Make?
Recent statistics show
that some welding jobs
pay $25.00 per hour
- If you worked five days a
week for one year, how
much money would you
make?

83% of people with


welding jobs were
offered medical benefits
- Higher than any other work
sector except government
For more information on welding statistics,
please log on to www.bls.gov
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Application Activity

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Application Activity

Lets explore some career


possibilities in welding

Please log on to a computer

Working with a team member,


research the websites to the right
and explore information about
welding careers

In 60 minutes, be prepared to
answer the following questions:

What careers in welding interest you


the most?

How can welding be high tech?

How much money can be made


annually in this chosen career field?

Where can you get a job in welding


and what are the basic requirements?

What are some job advancement


opportunities available in the welding
industry?

America's Job Bank


(http://www.ajb.dni.us)
Classifieds Employment
(http://www.classifieds2000.com)
Yahoo! Careers
(http://careers.yahoo.com/)
MONSTER.COM
(http://www.monster.com)
(http://nccer.monster.com)
CareerBuilder
(http://www.careerbuilder.com)

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Welding Safety

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Arc Welding Safety


Welding can be safe when sufficient measures are
taken to protect yourself and others from potential
hazards
Students should read and understand the following
before welding:
Warning Labels
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

Students should also be familiar with the following


information
Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes (ANSI Z49.1)
Lincoln Electrics Arc Welding Safety (E205)

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Warning Labels
Understand and
follow all warning
labels found:
On welding equipment
With all consumable
packaging
Within instruction
manuals

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Material Safety Data Sheets


Material Safety Data
Sheets (MSDS) are:
Required by law and
OSHA
Created by the
manufacturer of a product
per OSHA guidelines
Designed to inform users
Shipped with every box of
Lincoln Electric
consumable product
Available free online at:
www.lincolnelectric.com/product
s/msds/
front
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MSDS - Continued
MSDS outlines a
products:
Identity and
composition
Potential hazards
Safe use
Handling information
Manufacturer
contact information

back
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ANSI Z49.1
ANSI Z49.1: Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied
Processes
A safety document published by the American Welding Society that
covers safe practices in the welding environment
To get your free copy, go to:
www.aws.org/technical/facts/Z49.1-2005-all.pdf

E205: Arc Welding Safety


A safety document summarizing many of the hazards and safe
practices for welding
Download and print your own copy at:
http://content.lincolnelectric.com/pdfs/products/literature/e205.pdf

Free copies available from Lincoln Electric at:


www.lincolnelectric.com/products/litrequest

Access the E-learning Site @ www.agedlearning.com


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Arc Welding Safety


Protect yourself and
others from potential
hazards including:

Fumes and Gases


Electric Shock
Arc Rays
Fire and Explosion
Hazards
Noise
Hot objects

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Fumes and Gases


Fumes and gases can be
hazardous to your health
Keep your head out of the
fumes
Use enough ventilation,
exhaust at the arc, or both,
to keep fumes and gases
from your breathing zone
and the general area
See product labeling and
MSDS for ventilation and
respirator requirements
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Electric Shock
Electric shock can kill
Do not touch live electrical
parts
Primary Voltage 230, 460
volt input power
Secondary Voltage 6 to
100 volts for welding

Insulate yourself from


work and ground
Follow all warnings on
welding equipment

Do not make repairs


yourself, alert your
instructor immediately!

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Arc Rays
Arc rays can injure eyes and
burn skin
The welding arc is brighter
than the sun
Precaution must be taken to
protect your eyes and skin
from UV radiation
Wear correct eye and body
protection

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Fire and Explosion Hazards


Welding sparks can cause
fires and explosions
Sparks and spatter from the
welding arc can spray up to
35 feet from your work
Flammable materials should
be removed from the welding
area or shielded from sparks
and spatter
Have a fire extinguisher ready
Inspect area for fires 30
minutes after welding
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Noise

Loud noises can damage your hearing


Keep loud noises at a safe level by using proper
hearing protection such as:
Ear plugs
Ear muffs

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Protective Clothing
Welders must wear protective
clothing for
Protection from sparks, spatter and UV
radiation
Insulation from electric shock

Protective clothing includes


Fire-proof clothing without rolled sleeves,
cuffs or frays
Work boots
Welding gloves, jackets, bibs, and fireproof pants
Welding cap, helmet and safety glasses
Ear protection ear plugs and muffs
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Application Activity

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Application Activity
TIME TO PRACTICE
Go out to the lab
Demonstrate the use
of proper safety
precautions such as:
Reading warnings
Using proper protective
clothing
Equipment inspection
Keeping your head out
of the fume
Proper ventilation

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Basic Electricity and


Welding

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The Arc Welding Circuit


The electricity flows
from the power
source, through the
electrode and across
the arc, through the
base material to the
work lead and back
to the power source

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Basic Electricity
Voltage The electrical
potential or pressure that
causes current to flow

DC -

Measured in Volts

DC+

Current The movement


of charged particles in a
specific direction
Measured in Amps

AC

Polarity
DC- (Direct Current
Electrode Negative)
DC+ (Direct Current
Electrode Positive)
AC (Alternating Current)
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Math Terms
and Welding

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Math Terms in Welding


Believe it or not, a lot of math is used in welding
IPM Travel Speed = Inches per
Minute Travel Speed

The speed the electrode moves


along the base material

IPM Wire Feed Speed= Inches


per Minute Wire Feed Speed

The speed at which the wire is


fed during wire welding

Lbs/hr = Pounds per Hour

Electrode deposition rate

CFH= Cubic Feet per Hour

Shielding gas flow rate (wire


welding)

PSI= Pounds per Square Inch

Tensile strength of a material and


the pressure in gas cylinders

L = Leg

Fillet size measurement

% = percent

Shielding gas mixture


composition
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Metals

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Can All Metals Be Welded?


Most metals can be welded, but not all
The three most common weldable metals
include:
Mild Steel - inexpensive and strong
Stainless Steel does not rust
Aluminum does not rust and is light weight

Mild steel

Stainless Steel

Aluminum
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Gauge
Material thickness is sometimes measured by
gauge from 36 (.004 in) to 3 (.2391 in)
For example, steel gauge and measurement in inches:

16 gauge = .051

14 gauge = .064

12 gauge = .081

10 gauge = .102

PLEASE NOTE: As the gauge number gets smaller the material thickness gets larger.

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Types of Joints

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Types of Joints
There are 5 types of
joints

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Parts of a Weld

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Parts of a Weld

Heat Affected Zone


Joint and Weld

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Fillet and Groove Welds


Groove and fillet welds can be made on many
types of joints

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Fillet Weld Inspection


Fillet welds should:

Have a flat to slightly convex face


Be uniform in appearance
Have equal leg size
Have good wash-in into base materials

This is an example of a good fillet weld:

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Welding Symbols

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What are Welding Symbols?


Welding symbols give
the welder specific
instructions about the
weld including:

Placement
Size
Length
Process
Any other special
notes

Welding symbols are


Universally used
Governed by the AWS
Found on engineering
drawings

How to Read Shop Drawings


available at www.jflf.org
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Welding Symbols

Welding symbols contain information about the


weld to be made
S leg dimension of the weld
Triangle the weld is to be made on the arrow side of this joint
Tail any additional information required (i.e. position the weld
is to be made)
Arrow - the joint the welding symbol applies to

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Welding Positions

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What are Welding Positions?


There are various positions that a weld can be made in:

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Welder
Responsibilities

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What are the


Responsibilities of a Welder?
Welders have many areas of
important responsibilities
These relate to:

Arc Welding Safety


Knowledge Content
Attitude Reactions
Skills Performance
Work Habits Daily Functions
Always keep safety in
mind when welding
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Arc Welding Safety


A welder MUST always follow safe work
practices:
Students should read and understand the following before
welding:
Warning Labels
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

Students should also be familiar with the following information


Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes (ANSI Z49.1)
Lincoln Electrics Arc Welding Safety (E205)

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Knowledge - Content
Welding can teach
you about.
Science when applying
metallurgy, chemistry,
electricity, etc.
Math when calculating
angles, joint design, and
weld size
English when
communicating and
interpreting drawings,
codes, and procedures
Technical areas when
performing the actual
welding applications

How much science and


math went into the
development of this bike?
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Attitude
The best welders
demonstrate a can-do
attitude when performing
welding processes
This means being able to

Work as a team member


Communicate ideas to others
Listen to opinions of others
Promote a positive attitude
Provide solutions to problems
Take pride in workmanship

These welders work together


to inspect a weld.

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Skills/Performance
A welder must
demonstrate technical
skills when performing
welding processes
A welder must know how
to:
Use hand tools and materials,
to operate equipment in a safe,
accurate, and consistent
manner
Acquire and evaluate
information needed for
problem solving
Complete quality work
Maintain equipment

There is no room for poor


workmanship in NASCAR
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Work Habits/Daily Functions


A welder must practice good
working habits when
performing welding
processes
This means being able to
Follow detailed verbal and
written instructions
Maintain workspace,
equipment, and tool cleanliness
Correctly fill out, maintain and
submit time cards, work
assignment cards, and other
records as required
Follow safe working practices

Agriculture teachers brush


up on their welding skills at
Lincoln Electrics Welding
Educators Workshop

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Welding Certification

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Welding Certification
What is a welding certification?
Welding certifications are used to test a welders knowledge and
welding skill
Certifications are available for many different processes, materials, and
positions.

Who certifies welders?


Certification programs are offered by many different types of
organizations:

Companies
Skilled Trades
Military
Ship Builders
Pipelines
The American Welding Society
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Welding Certification
How can you become certified?
Certification testing is available at testing facilities all over the
United States
The AWS offers many certifications including: welders, welding
inspectors, and welding educators

What is the value of a welding certification?


A welding certification proves that you have passed a test and are
qualified for the job
As an AWS certified welder your name is kept in a national
database which is used to notify you of jobs open in your area
It is a source of accomplishment and pride

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English, Math, and


Science Connection

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English, Math, and


Science Connection
Many of the same concepts you learn in other
classes are practiced in welding. In what other
classes might you study the following terms?

75/25 gas mixture


Volts
Amps
Degree/hr cooling rate
In/min
Angles/degrees
Metallurgy
Fillet size

Current
Tension
Compression
Tensile strength
Yield
Blueprints
Depth/width ratio
Preheat temperature
Cubic feet per hour

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National Academic Standards


Crosswalk
The unit just completed has covered parts of
academic content listed in the National
Academic Standards as follows:
NM-PROB.CONN.PK-12.3: Recognizes and applies
mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.
NLA-STANDARD 1: Uses the general skills and strategies of
the writing process.
NLA-STANDARD 7: Uses reading skills and strategies to
understand and interpret a variety of informational texts.
NS-PHYSICAL SCIENCE: (Experiences) interactions of
energy and matter.

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