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You are on page 1of 41

pages :

The Derivative

Faculty of Science & Technology

OUTLINE

The Tangent Line

Definition of The Derivative

Rules for Finding Derivatives

Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

The Chain Rule

Higher-Order Derivatives

Implicit Differentiation

Applications of The Derivative

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

Tangent Definition

From geometry

a line in the plane of a circle

intersects in exactly one point

tangency to any function, f(x)

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

Approximated by secants

two points of intersection

desired point of tangency

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

Animated Tangent

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

Recall the concept of a limit from

previous chapter

Use the limit in this context

f ( x0 x) f ( x0 )

m lim

x 0

x

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

Consider f(x) = x3. Find the tangent at

x 0= 2

f (2 x) f (2)

m lim

x 0

x

(2 x)3 23

m lim

x 0

x

8 12x 6(x) 2 (x)3 8

m lim

x 0

x

Now finish

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

Definition of Derivative

The derivative is the formula which

gives the slope of the tangent line at

any point x for f(x)

f ( x0 h) f ( x0 )

f '( x) lim

h 0

h

no hole

no jump

no pole

no sharp corner

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

AAderivative

derivativeisisaa limit

limit !!

9

Derivative Notation

For the function y = f(x)

Derivative may be expressed as

dy

"the derivative of y with respect to x"

dx

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

10

f ( x) sin x 1

[sin( x h) 1] [sin x 1]

f '( x) lim

h 0

h

sin( x) cos(h) cos( x) sin( h) 1 sin x 1

lim

h 0

h

sin( x)(cos(h) 1) cos( x) sin( h)

lim

h 0

h

(cos(h) 1)

sin( h)

sin( x) lim

cos( x ) lim

0

h

0

h

h

cos( x)

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

11

If the graph of a function has a tangent at

point c, then there is no jump on the

graph at that point, thus is continuous

there.

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

12

A Derivative is a Limit

Therefore, the rules for limits,

essentially become the rules for

derivatives.

Derivative of a sum/difference is the

sum/difference of the derivatives.

Derivative of a product/quotient is the

product/quotient of the derivatives.

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

13

Basic Derivatives

Constant Function

Given f(x) = k

Then f(x) = 0

Power Function

Given f(x) = x n

n 1

f

'(

x

)

x

Then

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

d

(k ) 0

dx

d n

x n x n 1

dx

14

Basic Derivatives

Identity Function

Given f(x) = x

Then f(x) = 1

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

d

( x) 1

dx

15

Basic Rules

Constant multiple

Rule

d

d

c

f

(

x

)

f ( x )

dx

dx

Sum Rule

d

d

d

f ( x ) g ( x ) f ( x ) g ( x )

dx

dx

dx

Difference

Rule

d

d

d

f

(

x

)

g

(

x

)

f

(

x

)

g( x )

dx

dx

dx

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

16

Try It Out

Determine the following

y t 2t 3

y ' 2t 2

2

h( x )

h '( x)

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

f ( x) 3 5 x

f '( x) 3

p( x) x

14

11 3

x

p '( x) 3 x

17

Product Rule

Consider the product of two functions

f ( x) h( x) k ( x)

It can be shown that

In words:

plus the second function times the derivative of the

first

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

18

Quotient Rule

functions

p( x)

f ( x)

q( x)

f '( x)

In words:

q ( x) p '( x) p ( x) q '( x)

q ( x)

minus the numerator times the derivative of the

denominator, all divided by the square of the denominator

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

19

Just Checking . . .

Find the derivatives of the given functions

p x 2 x3 3 6 3x 2

p ' x 2 x3 3 6 x 6 3 x 2 3 x 2

7x 4

q( x)

5 x2

q ( x)

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

5 x 2 7 7 x 4 2 x

5 x

2 2

20

Derivatives of Trigonometric

Functions

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

21

sec x cot x

y

x

2

x(sec x tan x csc x) (sec x cot x)(1)

y'

2

x

2

x sec x tan x x csc x sec x cot x

y'

2

x

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

22

Given y = f (u) and u = g (x)

That is y = f(u) = f ( g(x) )

Then

dy dy du

dx du dx

In words:

The derivative of y with respect to x is

the derivative of y with respect to u times

the derivative of u with respect to x

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

24

Chain Rule

2 3

Example given y 8 x 3x

4

2

3

Then y f (u ) u and u 8 x 3 x

f '( x) 3 8 x 3 x

4

32 x

2 3

6 x

dy dy du

dx du dx

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

25

Other Example

Given:

y = (6x3 4x + 7)3

Then u(x) = 6x3 4x + 7

and f(u) = u3

Thus

f(x) = 3(6x3 4x + 7)2(18x2 4)

dy

du

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

du

dx

26

Note this is the composition of 3 functions,

therefore there will be 3 pieces to the chain.

3

y sin[( x csc x) ]

y ' cos[( x csc x) ]

3

[5( x csc x) ]

2

(3 x csc x cot x)

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

27

Conclusion

Dx a x a x ln(a )

dy dy du

dx du dx

ln a a g ( x ) g '( x)

When y = ag(x)

Use chain rule

Dx e

g ( x)

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

g ( x)

g '( x)

28

For the natural logarithm ln(x)

1

Dx ln x

x

1

Dx log a x

ln a x

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

29

Consider it a compound function

f ( x) ln( x)

g ( x) x

y f ( g ( x))

Apply the chain rule

1 d ( x) 1

1

Dx ln( x)

1

x dx

x

x

Thus we see

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

Dx ln( x) Dx ln( x)

30

functions.

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

31

Higher-Order Derivatives

f = 2nd derivative

f = 3rd derivative

f = 4th derivative, etc

The 2nd derivative is the derivative of

the 1st derivative.

The 3rd derivative is the derivative of

the 2nd derivative, etc

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

32

Alternate Notation

There is some alternate notation for higher

order derivatives as well.

Recall that there was a fractional notation

for the first derivative.

We can extend this to higher order

derivatives :

etc.

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

33

Example :

Find the first four derivatives for each of

the following.

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

34

Solutions :

(a)

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

(b)

35

Implicit Differentiation

Consider an equation involving both x and y:

x y 49

2

It could be defined explicitly

y x 49

2

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

( where x 7)

36

Differentiate

Differentiate both sides of the equation

each term

one at a time

use the chain rule for terms containing y

For x y 49 we get

2

dy

2x 2 y

0

dx

Now solve for dy/dx

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

dy x

dx y

37

Differentiate cont.

dy

Then 2 x 2 y 0

dx

gives us

dy 2 x x

dx 2 y y

We can replace the y in the results with the

explicit value of y as needed

dy

x

This gives us

2

the slope on the

dx

x 49

curve for any

legal value of x

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

38

Second Derivative

Given x2 y2 = 49

x

y'

y

y =??

Substitute

d y y x y '

y =

2

2

dx

y

2

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

39

sin( xy ) tan( y ) 2 x

dy

dy

2

cos( xy ) ( x y 1) sec

( y ) 2

dx

dx

dy

dy

2

cos( xy ) x y cos( xy ) sec ( y ) 2

dx

dx

dy

( x cos( xy ) sec 2 y ) 2 y cos( xy )

dx

dy

2 y cos( xy )

dx x cos( xy ) sec 2 y

KG/ME_SST/SEPT08

40

Applications Of

The Derivative

Refer pages 151-214 : Chapter 3

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