6 views

Uploaded by Anandhan Pon

PPT on life and works of Archimedes

- OTC-24802-MS
- ClagettArchimedesI.pdf
- RPT FIZIK 2013
- SSC CHSL Quantitative Aptitude
- Archimedes
- Evaluation of various theoretical models of underwater explosions
- 10th Class
- DAO SYLLABUS 2018 IN AP
- West Lake Landfill – Site DocumentsBridgeton Landfill/OU-1 Coring (Phase 1B, 1C and 2) Work Plan - Addendum 1, Feb. 11, 2014
- X MATHS Workbook
- Tas
- f4 Yearly Plan 2013
- Chapter 11
- 3rd Practice Test 2 Level 6-8 - With Calculator
- Revision Part2
- Revision_Part2.pdf
- Physics
- P2 Nov 03 QP
- Swimming
- Lesson Plan

You are on page 1of 27

ARCHIMEDES

BY RATHIN AND GROUP

A PPT Presentation

By VIII B Boys

25-10-2015

Archimedes

o Archimedes of Syracuse (c.287 BC c.212 BC)

o He is regarded as one of the leading scientists

in classical antiquity.

o Archimedes' father was an astronomer named

Phidias.

o Generally considered the greatest

mathematician of antiquity and one of the

greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated

modern calculus and analysis by applying

concepts of infinitesimals and the method of

exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a

range of geometrical theorems.

Archimedes principle

the upward buoyant forcethat is

exerted on a body immersed in a

fluid, whether fully or partially

submerged, is equal to the weightof

the fluid that the bodydisplaces.

Archimedes' principle is alaw of

physics fundamental tofluid

mechanics.

Archimedes of Syracuseformulated

this principle, which bears his name.

Important invention in

mathematics field

modern integral calculus which is known as

exhaustion and he employed it to find the value of .

InMeasurement of a Circlehe did this by drawing a

larger regular hexagonoutside acircleand a smaller

regular hexagon inside the circle, and progressively

doubling the number of sides of each regular polygon,

calculating the length of a side of each polygon at

each step.

As the number of sides increases, it becomes a more

accurate approximation of a circle.

After four such steps, when the polygons had 96 sides

each, he was able to determine that the value of lay

between 317 (approximately 3.1429) and

31071(approximately 3.1408), consistent with its

actual value of approximately 3.1416.

He also proved that thearea of a circle was equal to

multiplied by thesquareof theradiusof the circle

(r2).

mathematics

Archimedes anticipated modern

calculus and analysis by applying

concepts of infinitesimals and

the method of exhaustion to derive

and rigorously prove a range of

geometrical theorems.

Important invention in

irrigation

Archimedes' screw: It is amachine

historicallyused for transferring waterfrom a lowlying body of water intoirrigationditches.

Water is pumped by turning a screw-shaped

surface inside a pipe.

The screw pump is commonly attributed

toArchimedeson the occasion of his visit toEgypt.

This tradition may reflect only that the apparatus

was unknown to the Greeks

beforeHellenistictimes and was introduced in

Archimedes' lifetime by unknown Greekengineers.

Some writers have suggested the device may have

been in use inAssyriasome 350 years earlier.

field of mathematics

postulates that any magnitude when added

to it enough times will exceed any given

magnitude.

This is the Archimedean property of real

numbers.

In The Quadrature of the Parabola

Archimedes proved that the area enclosed by

a parabola and a straight line is 43 times the

area of a corresponding inscribed triangle as

shown in the figure at right.

He expressed the solution to the problem as

an infinite geometric series with the common

ratio 14

Important inventions in

war fields

Archimedes heat ray:

Archimedes used mirrors

acting as a reflector to burn

ships attacking Syracuse.

The device was used to focus

sunlight onto approaching

ships, causing them to catch

war fields

TheClawof Archimedes: This was

an ancient weapon devised

byArchimedesto defend the

seaward portion of Syracuse'scity

wallagainst amphibious assault.

It is described as a sort of

craneequipped with agrappling

hookthat was able to lift an

attacking ship partly out of the

water, then either cause the ship to

capsize or suddenly drop it.

astronomy

The

Archimedes counts the number of grains of

sand that will fit inside the universe.

This book mentions theheliocentrictheory

of thesolar systemproposed

byAristarchus of Samos, as well as

contemporary ideas about the size of the

Earth and the distance between various

celestial bodies.

By using a system of numbers based on

powers of themyriad, Archimedes

concludes that the number of grains of

sand required to fill the universe is

81063in modern notation.

Writings

The works of Archimedes were written inDoric Greek,

the dialect of ancientSyracuse.

The written work of Archimedes has not survived as well

as that ofEuclid, and seven of his treatises are known to

have existed only through references made to them by

other authors.

Pappus of AlexandriamentionsOn Sphere-Makingand

another work on polyhedra, whileTheon of

Alexandriaquotes a remark aboutrefractionfrom

thenow-lostCatoptrica.

During his lifetime, Archimedes made his work known

through correspondence with the mathematicians

inAlexandria.

The writings of Archimedes were first collected by

theByzantineGreek architectIsidore of Miletuswhile

commentaries on the works of Archimedes written

byEutociusin the sixth century AD helped to bring his

work a wider audience.

Archimedes' work was translated into Arabic by Thabit

ibn Qurraand Latin byGerard of Cremona.

Ostomachion

attributed to Archimedes.

This work has survived fragmentarily in an

Arabic version.

The word Ostomachion has as its roots in

the Greek which means "bone-fight", from "bone

and (mache), "fight, battle, combat". The

manuscripts refer to the word as " Stomachion",

an apparent corruption of the original

Greek. Ausonius gives us the correct name

"Ostomachion".

The Ostomachion which he describes was a puzzle

similar to tangrams and was played perhaps by

several persons with pieces made of bone.

Surviving works

The first volume of On the Equilibrium of Planes is in fifteen

propositions, while the second is in ten. In this Archimedes

explains the Law of the Lever, stating Magnitudes are in

equilibrium at distances reciprocally proportional to their

weights.

Archimedes uses the principles derived to calculate the areas

and centers of gravity of various geometric figures

including triangles, parallelograms and parabolas.

On Spirals: This work of 28 propositions is also addressed to

Dositheus. The treatise defines what is now called

the Archimedean spiral.

It is the locus of points corresponding to the locations over

time of a point moving away from a fixed point with a constant

speed along a line which rotates with constant angular velocity.

Equivalently, in polar coordinates (r, ) it can be described by

the equation: r = a + b

Apocryphal works-1

On Conoids and Spheroids: This is a work in 32

treatise Archimedes calculates the areas and

volumes of sections of cones, spheres, and

paraboloids.

On Floating Bodies (1): In the first part,

Archimedes spells out the law of equilibrium of

fluids, and proves that water will adopt a

spherical form around a center of gravity. This

was an attempt to explain the theory of

contemporary Greek astronomers that the Earth

is round.

The fluids described by Archimedes are not selfgravitating, since he assumes the existence of a

point towards which all things fall in order to

derive the spherical shape.

Apocryphal works-2

On Floating Bodies (2): In the second part, he

of paraboloids. This was probably an idealization

of the shapes of ships' hulls.

Some of his sections float with the base under

water and the summit above water, similar to

the way that icebergs float.

Archimedes' principle of buoyancy is given in the

work, stated as follows:

Any body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid

experiences an up thrust equal to, but opposite

in sense to, the weight of the fluid displaced.

Other works

Archimedes' cattle problem: This work was discovered

consisting of a poem of 44 lines, in the Herzog August

Library in Wolfenbttel, Germany in 1773. It is

addressed to Eratosthenes and the mathematicians in

Alexandria. Archimedes challenges them to count the

numbers of cattle in the Herd of the Sun by solving a

number of simultaneous Diophantine equations. There is

a more difficult version of the problem in which some of

the answers are required to be square numbers. This

version of the problem was first solved by A. Amthor in

1880, and the answer is a very large number,

approximately 7.76027110206544.

The Method of Mechanical Theorems: In this Archimedes

uses infinitesimals and shows how breaking up a figure

into an infinite number of small parts can be used to

determine its area. He used the method of exhaustion to

derive the results. This was written in the form of a

letter to Eratosthenes in Alexandria.

Archimedes Palimpsest

In 1906, the Danish professor Johan Ludvig

174-page goatskin parchment of prayers written in

the 13th century AD and discovered it as

a palimpsest, a document with text that had been

written over an erased older work which were

created by scraping the ink from existing works

and reusing them.

the Archimedes Palimpsest are: On the Equilibrium

of Planes, On Spirals, Measurement of a Circle, On

the Sphere and the Cylinder, On Floating Bodies,

the Method of Mechanical Theorems and

Stomachion in Greek.

Birth

Archimedes was born c. 287 BC in the seaport

city of Syracuse, Sicily, at that time a selfgoverning colony in Magna Graecia, located

along the coast of Southern Italy.

The date of birth is based on a statement by the

Byzantine Greek historian John Tzetzes that

Archimedes lived for 75 years. Archimedess

father's name is Phidias who is an astronomer.

Archimedes was related to King Hiero II, the

ruler of Syracuse. During his youth, Archimedes

had studied in Alexandria, Egypt.

Death

Archimedes died c. 212 BC during the Second

Punic War, when Roman forces under

General Marcus Claudius Marcellus captured the

city of Syracuse after a two-year-long siege.

According to the popular account given

by Plutarch, Archimedes was contemplating

a mathematical diagram when the city was

captured. A Roman soldier commanded him to

come and meet General Marcellus but he declined,

saying that he had to finish working on the

problem. The soldier was enraged by this, and

killed Archimedes with his sword. The last words

attributed to Archimedes are "Do not disturb my

circles", a reference to the circles in the

mathematical drawing that he was supposedly

studying.

Archimedes

excelled in many

fields other than

mathematics.

He was successful in

becoming a

physicist, engineer, inventor,

and astronomer.

his honor, as well as a lunar mountain range, the

Montes Archimedes and the asteroid 3600

Archimedes is named after him.

The Fields Medal for outstanding achievement in

mathematics carries a portrait of Archimedes, along

with a carving illustrating his proof on the sphere

and the cylinder. The inscription around the head of

Archimedes is a quote attributed to him which reads

in Latin: "Transire suum pectus mundoque potiri"

(Rise above oneself and grasp the world).

Archimedes has appeared on postage stamps issued

by East

Germany (1973), Greece (1983), Italy (1983), Nicaragu

a (1971), San Marino (1982), and Spain (1963).

The exclamation of Eureka attributed to Archimedes

is the motto of California.

Quotable quotes

Pictures

- OTC-24802-MSUploaded bymicktunx
- ClagettArchimedesI.pdfUploaded byRamon
- RPT FIZIK 2013Uploaded byeriire79
- SSC CHSL Quantitative AptitudeUploaded bySupriya Santre
- ArchimedesUploaded byVivek Singhvi
- Evaluation of various theoretical models of underwater explosionsUploaded byManeesh Jey
- 10th ClassUploaded byBashir Ahmad
- DAO SYLLABUS 2018 IN APUploaded bySWETHA LATHA
- West Lake Landfill – Site DocumentsBridgeton Landfill/OU-1 Coring (Phase 1B, 1C and 2) Work Plan - Addendum 1, Feb. 11, 2014Uploaded byEPA Region 7 (Midwest)
- X MATHS WorkbookUploaded bygomathi_nellai
- TasUploaded byAbraham Imam Muttaqin
- f4 Yearly Plan 2013Uploaded byLojk Leong
- Chapter 11Uploaded byyounessina
- 3rd Practice Test 2 Level 6-8 - With CalculatorUploaded bywong chee sheng
- Revision Part2Uploaded byGundreddy Bhanu
- Revision_Part2.pdfUploaded byrawad
- PhysicsUploaded bynangunguna
- P2 Nov 03 QPUploaded byJonMort
- SwimmingUploaded byRachel Erica Guillero Buesing
- Lesson PlanUploaded bymrhoad1
- 4th Periodic Test in Math Wtos(1)Uploaded byownlinkscribd
- Syllabus Group3 Group4 Group5Uploaded byNagappan CSE
- T_2011 State RelayUploaded byturbowarrior23
- Mathematics (2013) May Paper 2Uploaded byJewelle
- Lesson 63 Finding the Area of a Parallelogram.docxUploaded byvergel egot
- Errors inherent in Directional Surveying with MWD tools.Uploaded byDhiaa LaMi
- Denis Formula Insulation Multiplier.pdfUploaded byJessie Mitchell
- Fourier Worksheets FeedbackUploaded bypilas_nikola
- Module 7-Topic C-Solving Problems Involving PerimeterUploaded byLisa McGuire
- 10 Shape & Space 2D (pg 206-217)Uploaded byysheng98

- Curs MetafilosofieUploaded byIulia Cebotari
- Hopf Invariant PaperUploaded byAllen Yuan
- Rhythm as Schema in Search of the MatureUploaded byMarcia Borba
- Iit_rama Test PapersUploaded bySoham Nayak
- English Class X Maths Chapter08Uploaded byKhan
- Ultima Cumaei Venit Iam Carminis AetasUploaded byMalKukura
- Gauss' LawUploaded byArsetonika
- RW-CLOSED MAPS AND RW-OPEN MAPS IN TOPOLOGICAL SPACESUploaded byATS
- 07_PEDDLEUploaded byArlen David Cardona
- math vocab cards 4Uploaded byapi-217926230
- Laplace EquationUploaded byPorfirio Hernandez
- General relativityUploaded bylatec
- 2005 AITMO INDIVIDUAL .docUploaded byNoppachai Nop Siranart
- Robert Gilbert-Introduction to BioSignaturesUploaded byXristos Grigore
- MCQ Phy 11th Units and Dimensions Test Paper 03-05-2013Uploaded byPavan Reddy
- Philip Feinsilver, RenÃ© Schott (auth.) Algebraic Structures and Operator Calculus_ Volume III_ Representations of Lie Groups 1996Uploaded byJuan Moises Gutierrez Mesias
- 3DECUploaded byDaniele Baraldi
- Basement Block_accidental TorsionUploaded bypandyatushar
- UKMT Senior Mathematical Challenge 2013Uploaded bycob345
- Electromagnetic Scattering by Surfaces of Arbitrary Shape (RaoWiltonGlisson).pdfUploaded byHaroon Muhammad
- geometry section 4 3Uploaded byapi-262621710
- Method of Last ResortUploaded by4ma3x
- CSEC 06-upUploaded byA.Benson
- Study Island (1)Uploaded bynickiharrison
- Math 730 (Graduate Topology, UMD) Notes (Sept. 2016)Uploaded byJoseph Heavner
- Adrian Tang - Mixing Variable TechniqueUploaded byDijkschneier
- Leibniz, G.W. - A New Method for Finding Maxima and MinimaUploaded byxamanian
- Std06-III-MSSS-EM-1Uploaded bynaveen_suyal
- TESSELLATIONUploaded byMohd Fahmi Yusof
- Caja de TriangulosUploaded bySilvana Valenzuela Araneda