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the particle is located by its position vector r measured from a fixed origin O.

v

The velocity of the particle is r is tangent

to its path. The resultant force F of all

forces on m isin the

direction of its

acceleration a v .

We may write the basic equation of motion for

the particle, as

F ma mv

or

d

d

F mv mv

G G

dt

dt

of the mass and velocity is defined as the linear

all forces acting on a particle equals its time rate of change of linear

momentum.

mv

equals N.s.

Linear momentum equation is one of the most useful and important

relationships in dynamics, and it is valid as long as mass m of the particle is

not changing with time.

We now write the three scalar components of linear momentum equation as

Fx G x

Fy G y

Fz G z

Principle

All that we have done so far is to rewrite Newtons

second law in an

the resultant force on the linear momentum of the particle over a finite

period of time simply by integrating the linear momentum equation with

respect to time t. Multiplying the equation by dt gives

we integrate from time t1 to time t2 to obtain

dG

F

dt

t2

Fdt

t1

linear impulse

G2

G1

, which

Fdt dG

dG G2 G1 G

change in linear momentum

Here the linear momentum at time t2 is G2=mv2 and the linear momentum at

time t1 is G1=mv1. The product of force and time is defined as the linear

impulse of the force, and this equation states that the total linear impulse

on m equals the corresponding change in linear momentum of m.

G1

Fdt G2

which says that the initial linear momentum of the body plus the linear impulse

applied to it equals its final linear momentum.

G 2 mv 2

v1

G1 mv1

Fdt

both magnitude and direction during the time interval. Under these

and

F

G in component form

and then combine the integrated components. The components become the

scalar equations, which are independent of one another.

t2

F dt mv

x

x 2

mv x 1 G x2 G x1 G x

t1

t2

F dt mv mv

y

y 2

y 1

G y2 G y1 G y

t1

t2

F dt mv

z

t1

z 2

mv z 1 G z 2 G z1 G z

There are cases where a force acting on a particle changes with the time in a

manner determined by experimental measurements or by other approximate

means. In this case, a graphical or numerical integration must be performed.

If, for example, a force acting on a particle in a given direction changes with

the time as indicated in the figure, the impulse,

t2

t1

F dt

Conservation of Linear

Momentum

linear momentum G remains constant. In this case, the linear momentum of

the particle is said to be conserved. Linear momentum may be conserved in

one direction, such as x, but not necessarily in the y- or z- direction.

G 0 G1 G2

mv1 mv2

This equation expresses the principle of conservation of linear momentum.

PROBLEM

S

1. The 200-kg lunar lander is descending onto the moons surface with a

velocity of 6 m/s when its retro-engine is fired. If the engine produces a

thrust T for 4 s which varies with the time as shown and then cuts off,

calculate the velocity of the lander when t=5 s, assuming that it has not yet

landed. Gravitational acceleration at the moons surface is 1.62 m/s 2.

SOLUTIO

N

m 200 kg ,

g 1.62 m / s 2

v1 6 m / s ,

,

v2 ?

motio

n

1

mg (5) (800) 2 (800) 2 200 v2 6

2

1620 800 1600 200 v2 6

v2 6 3.9

v2 2.1 m / s

m

g

t 5 s,

PROBLEM

S

2. The 9-kg block is moving to the right with a velocity of 0.6 m/s on a

horizontal surface when a force P is applied to it at time t=0. Calculate the

velocity v of the block when t=0.4 s. The kinetic coefficient of friction is

k=0.3.

SOLUTIO

N

motion

W=m

g

P

F y 0

N mg 0

N 9(9.81) 88.3 N

F f k N 0.3(88.3)

Ff= k

N

in x direction

t

Fdt mv mv

72dt 36dt

0

t1 0.2

0

t 2 0.4

t 2 0.4

t1 0.2

v2 1.823m / s

PROBLEM

S

3. A tennis player strikes the tennis ball with her racket while the ball is still

rising. The ball speed before impact with the racket is v 1=15 m/s and after

impact its speed is v2=22 m/s, with directions as shown in the figure. If the

60-g ball is in contact with the racket for 0.05 s, determine the magnitude of

the average force R exerted by the racket on the ball. Find the angle made

by R with the horizontal.

SOLUTIO

N

v2 y

v2

in x direction

t

F dt mv

x

0.05

Rx t 0

2 x

mv1 x

0.05 R x 2.127

20

10 v

1x

v1 y v1

F dt mv

y

Ryt

0.05

0

2 y

0.05 R y 0.325

R 43.02 N

Rx

mv1 y

0.05

0.06(9.81)t 0

R y 6.49 N

tan

W=

mg

R x 42.53 N

in y direction

t

v2 x

Ry

Rx

8.68

R Ry

Ry

Rx

PROBLEM

S

4. The 40-kg boy has taken a running jump from the upper surface and lands

on his 5-kg skateboard with a velocity of 5 m/s in the plane of the figure as

shown. If his impact with the skateboard has a time duration of 0.05 s,

determine the final speed v along the horizontal surface and the total normal

force N exerted by the surface on the skateboard wheels during the impact.

PROBLEM

S y

(mB+mS)

g

x

N

Linear momentum is conserved in x-direction;

mB vBx mS vSx mB mS v

40 5 cos 30 0 40 5 v

in y direction

m B v By mS v Sy

0.05

N m

0

v 3.85 m / s

mS g dt 0

N 2440 N or N 2.44 kN

In addition to the equations of linear impulse and linear momentum, there exists

a parallel set of equations for angular impulse and angular momentum. First, we

define the term angular momentum. Figure shows a particle P of mass m moving

along a curve in space. The particle is located by its position vector r

respect to a convenient origin O of fixed coordinates x-y-z.

with

vr

G mv . The

moment of the linear momentum vector mv about the origin O is defined as

The velocity of the particle is

relation for the moment of a vector

H o r mv r G

. The sense of H

O

products.

and

H o r mv

expansion

Ho m x

j

y

vx

vy

so that

H ox m yv z zv y

z m yv z zv y i m zv x xv z j m xv y yv x k

vz

H oy m zv x xv z

kg.m2/s =N.m.s.

H oz m xv y yv x

If

o

We now differentiate

Mo r

F r mv

H o r mv

d

H o r mv r m

v r m

v

dt

a

r mr 0 m

Mo

The term v mv is zero since the cross product of parallel vectors is zero.

M o Ho

ox

H ox

M oy H oy

oz

H oz

To obtain the effect of the moment on the angular momentum of the particle

M o H o from time t1 to t2.

t2

or

M o dt

t1

t2

M o dt

Ho 2

dH o H o

Ho

2 Ho

H o

r2 mv2 r1 mv1 H o

t1

The total angular impulse on m about the fixed point O equals the

corresponding change in angular momentum of m about O.

Alternatively, we may write

t2

H o 1 M o dt H o

t1

Plane-Motion

Application

moments are taken about a single axis normal to the plane motion. In this case,

the angular momentum may change magnitude and sense, but the direction of

the vector remains unaltered.

t2

o dt

H o 2 H o 1

t1

t2

Fr sindt mv d

2 2

t1

mv1d1

Conservation of Angular

Momentum

O

constant. In this case, the angular momentum of the particle is said to be

conserved. Angular momentum may be conserved about one axis but not about

another axis.

H o 0 H O1 H O2

This equation expresses the principle of conservation of angular momentum.

PROBLEM

S

1. The assembly starts from rest and reaches an angular speed of 150

rev/min under the action of a 20 N force T applied to the string for t

seconds. Determine t. Neglect friction and all masses except those of the

four 3-kg spheres, which may be treated as particles.

SOLUTIO

N

t2

t1

M z dt H z2 H z1

2

20

0 .4

0.1 t 4 3 0.4 150

60

T r

m

r

sphere link

pulley

vsphere

t 15.08 s

PROBLEM

S2. A pendulum

shown on a light but rigid bar. The pendulum is swinging through the vertical

position with a clockwise angular velocity =6 rad/s when a 50-g bullet

traveling with velocity v=300 m/s in the direction shown strikes the lower

mass and becomes embedded in it. Calculate the angular velocity which the

pendulum has immediately after impact and find the maximum deflection of

the pendulum.

SOLUTIO

N

Angular momentum

(2

)

M O dt H O2 H O1 0 , H O1 H O2

MO 0

r mv 1 r mv 2

(1

)

0.050 300 0.4 cos 20 3.2 0.2 2 6 3.2 0.4 2 6 0.050 3.2 0.4 2 3.2 0.2 2

v1

v2

2

1

v1

v2

SOLUTIO

N

v1

v2

v2

1

v1

T1 V g1 T2 V g 2

(Datum at O)

1

0.05 3.2 0.4 2.77 2 1 3.2 0.2 2.77 2 3.2 0.2 9.81 3.2 0.05 0.4 9.81

2

2

0 3.2 0.2 9.81 cos 3.2 0.05 0.4 9.81 cos

52.1o

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