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Relay Scheme

Design Using
Microprocessor
Relays
April 1, 2015

Presenter:

Kevin Donahoe P.E., GE Digital


Energy, Power Delivery Projects

report to the System Protection


Subcommittee of the Power System Relay
Committee of the IEEE Power & Energy
Society

Prepared

by working group C16 June 2014

This

paper is a supplement to the 1999


relay trip circuit design paper and addresses
the use of microprocessor relays.
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Introduction
General

Scheme Design

Targeting
SCADA

and Additional Post Trip Indications

Functions

Maintainability/Testing
Documentation
Training
Lessons

Learned
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Introduction

Typical Trip circuit using


Electromechanical relays
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Benefits of Microprocessor Relays


Panel

wiring, the number of panels, even


the size of the house can be reduced.

Eliminate

diodes

Use

the need for auxiliary relays,

built-in self-diagnositics

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Trip circuits
Typical

breaker trip circuit using


microprocessor relay
(+)
01/T

IN1

Station
Battery
Voltage

IN2

86/BF
TRIP/
OUT1

52a

TRIP*/
OUT2
TC-2

CLOSE/
OUT3
CC

52a
IN3
TC-1
(-)

IN4

BFI*/
OUT4

79 I*/
OUT5

External External External External


BFI
79 I BF Relay 79 Relay

Integral to microprocessor
based relay
IN1 = Breaker status input
IN2 = Trip circuit monitor input (optional)
TC-1 = Breaker trip coil 1
TC-2 = Breaker trip coil 2
CC = Breaker close coil

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Circuit Considerations
How

many functions are needed?


Are there backup or redundant
protection functions if a relay fails?
How does DC system malfunction affect
protection?
And we still have to consider

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Relay Contact Ratings


Calculating

L/R rating:

Load Inductance
L/R rating
Load Resistance + Cable Resistance to Load
=

Seal-in

logic
Minimum trip duration timer
Speed of operation
Metallic or hybrid solid-state

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General Scheme Design

Applying Multiple Output Contacts


Multiple

isolated output contacts


eliminate the need for diodes to
maintain isolation between DC systems
Direct breaker tripping eliminates the
delay incurred by an immediate contact
multiplying
Speed of operation can be effected by
contact chosen
Outputs can help with testing
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Integration, Separation, and


Redundancy
Combining

functions into one relay can


reduce cost (integration)
However, there must be a relay in place to
cover for relay failure and functions must
be assigned to it (separation)
Will this second relay/functions be
identical? Similar? Complementary? Same
manufacturer? Different? (Redundancy)
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Power Supply Considerations


More

microprocessor relays typically


means increased continuous DC system
loads
Once adequate DC supply systems
may need to be revisited

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Power Supply Considerations

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Sneak Circuits
Sneak

circuits are unintended design flaws that


can result in serious consequences
With increased complexity, sneak circuits are
more likely
With Microprocessors, the sneak circuits have
often moved inside
Systematic testing and inspection is most
common way to prevent
Many sneak conditions are located through trial
and error over time in the field
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Particular Changes in Circuit


Functionality
Direct
Dual
Dual
Dual
Dual
Dual
Dual

Tripping
Relay Tripping
Trip Coils with One Relay
Trip Coils with Two Relays
Trip Coils with Breaker Re-trip
Trip Coils, Relay Cross-Tripping
Breaker Scheme
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Targeting and Additional Post Trip


Indications
Targets
Virtual

targets
Sequence of Events Records
Oscillography

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SCADA Functions
Level

of protection and SCADA


integration within the microprocessor
relay
I/O, measurement, monitoring and
control

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Lessons Learned
Opportunities

Simplified trip circuit design


Reduce need for aux devices and steering
diodes
Vastly improved visibility (TCM, alarms, etc)
Challenges

Access to internal logic


Burden to station battery
Enable overfunctionalization
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The best engineered


designs are those that
are the simplest and
most robust ones that
ultimately achieve the
most reliability.

How to Get a Copy of the Original Paper


http://pes-psrc.org/

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How to Get a Copy of the Original Paper

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How to Get a Copy of the Original Paper

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Relay Scheme Design Using Microprocessor Relays
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How to Get a Copy of the Original Paper

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Questions?