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Process of excavating under an existing

foundation and building up a new supporting
structure, from a lower level to the underside of
the existing foundation.
Reason for underpinning works:
To transfer the load carried by an existing
foundation from its present bearing level to a
new level at a lower depth.
A very expensive and high risk maintenance

Reasons for Underpinning Works:

1. Foundation settlement happened due to:

i. Uneven loading
ii. Unequal resistance of the subsoil
iii. Action of tree roots
iv. Action of subsoil water
v. Cohesive soil settlement
vi. Deterioration of foundation concrete
2. To increase the load bearing capacity of a foundation, which
may be required to enable an extra storey to be added to the
existing structure or if a change of use would increase the
imposed loading.
3. As a preliminary operation to lowering the adjacent ground
level when constructing a basement at a lower level than the
existing foundations of the adjoining structure when laying
deep services near to or below the existing foundations.

To enable excavation works to the adjacent buildings; which deeper than level of the buildings.

Site survey and preliminary works before

underpinning works:

Notice to the adjoining owners. Explain in detail the

intention to do the underpinning works and giving full
details of any proposed temporary supports such as shoring.

2. Survey of the building to be underpinned. Record any

defects, cracks, supplemented by photographs and agreed
with the building owner where possible.
3. Take photo of building to be underpinned as a proof.

4. Record all the buildings movement with

theodolite/levels etc.

Site survey and preliminary works before

underpinning works: (contd)
5. Survey on required temporary support while doing
underpinning works such as shoring works.
6. Survey on soil . Make sure that the new load impose
is on the suitable strength and to determined the
suitable types of underpinning work to be done.
7. Take notes on safety control for public, workers
and publics properties.

Site survey and preliminary works before

underpinning works: (contd)
8. Bring down as much as imposed load to the building
and provide temporary support where necessary.
9. Determine servicing pipe to the building. Make sure
it will not be interrupted or contractor have to
provide alternative way for the servicing pipe.
10. Get a permission and give notice to Local Authority
on proposed underpinning works.

BUILDING BY LAW 1984 ( Clause 90

Parts IV)
If underpinning works is required, owner or the agents
1. Get a written sanctions from Local Authority
before start the underpinning works.
2. Comply with all the clause stated in the Building By
3. Give a written notice to Local Authority inform how
and what underpinning works will be done.

Types of Underpinning:-

1. Continuous / Traditional Underpinning

2. Pre-test Method Underpinning

3. Miga @ jack Underpinning
4. Bore Pile Underpinning
5. Needle and pile Underpinning
6. Radial Piling Underpinning
7. Pynford Stooling Underpinning


Continuous/ Traditional underpinning can be

use to replace strip foundation only.
Either the width of foundation is B or 1B.


Sequence works of Continuous Underpinning:

1. Divide wall to 5 bays. E.g.: 7.50 meter/5 part =

1.50 meter each part.
2. Number each bays start from the left side.
3. Excavation works will be done stage by stage to
the sides and under existing foundation.
4. Timbering must be done at excavation area as a
safety precaution especially to the workers.
5. Excavation will start with parts No.3.
6. Excavate till to the new level required.

Sequence works of Continuous Underpinning:

6. Construct new foundation with the length of 1.50
meter in excavation/working space area No.3.
7. Followed with construct new wall with the length of
1.50 meter on the new foundation. Make sure that
the wall is close enough to support existing
8. Fill the gap between existing foundation and new wall
with final pinning - mortar with ratio 1:3.
9. Repeat this method to working space No.5, followed
by No.1, No.4 and lastly No.2.
10.End of new wall must be construct with tooth to
bond the wall with another new wall .

Sequence Works of Continuous Underpinning:

11. End of new foundation must have dowel bars

and toothed to produce strength and neat connection
between new foundation.
12. DPM can be install in underpinning works if
13. All excavation works must be filling back in
14. It is recommended that parts of excavation works/
working area to be underpinned must not more than
6 part.
15. All part/ working area with the same No. can be
excavate in one time.

Continuous Underpinning

Continuous Underpinning

Factors on determine the numbers and

length of the working space:
1. Length of wall to be support.
2. Width of existing foundation.
3. Condition of existing foundation.
4. Load imposed to the existing foundation.
5. Estimated ability length for existing
6. Soil condition under existing foundation.

Attention/ Precaution on construction of

Continuous Underpinning:
1. Maximum length of foundation or wall floating in one
time is only 1.20 meter 1.50 meter.
2. Total length of floating foundation must be not
more than 1.40 meter from total length of
foundation or wall to be underpinned.
3. Floating area supposedly not more than 1/5-1/6
from total length in one time if existing
underpinning is too weak or broken or load density is
too big.
4. Buildings with low density load e.g.: double storey
house or buildings with good condition wall, floating
area permitted is 1/3 from total length of the wall.


This method is can be used for strip and pad

Its suitable for building which increase the
load bearing capacity to the building. E.g.
increased storey from 5 to 10 storey.
Subsoil in new excavation level will be
compact and compress to gave a
predetermined loads to the soil before
underpinning works done.


Sequence works for Pre-test Method

1. Underpinning for strip foundation will be
done stage by stage as in Continuous
2. Construct reinforced concrete strip
foundation with appropriate thickness to
allow tension and compaction in foundation.
3. For pad foundation, excavation will be done
under existing pad foundation.
4. New pad foundation will be construct in pit.

Sequence works for Pre-test Method

5. When new foundation has matured, jack hydraulic
will be put on the top of the new foundation.
6. Then, precast concrete beam will be arrange on
top of the jack.
7. Fast hardening concrete is laid between the
precast concrete beam .
8. Before it has finally hardened, set the jack.
9. Precast concrete beam and half hardened
concrete will be jack up to the existing
foundation. All pores between concrete will be
compacted and fill with half hardened concrete

Sequence works for Pre-test Method

10. When concrete have matured, jack beam and
concrete one more time to the new level. It is
extended to give a predetermined load on the new
foundation, thus pretesting the soil beneath.
11.Underpinning material such as engineering bricks,
concrete blocks and steel beam will be put in the
hollow space as a support to precast concrete
beam before remove jack.
12. Remove jack, and fill the hollow space with
underpinning material such as bricks or concretes.


1. This

method is suitable for strip and pad foundation.

2. Suitable for subsoil with deep bearing capacity

which is not practical to use traditional wall
3. Using jack in underpinning works can avoid deep
4. No vibration and noise in using jack which will not
disturb nearest building or environment.


5.Can be use in as short as 1.80m depth working

6.Existing foundation supposed to be in good
condition to receive piles. At the end it will act
as a pile cap to the piles.
7.The condition and ability of the existing strip
foundation will determine the spacing of the pile.


Sequence works for Miga @ Jack Underpinning:

1. For strip foundation, excavation works is done

as per continuous underpinning. Excavate bay
by bay with 1.80m depth working space.
2. For pad foundation, excavation is done under
existing foundation.
3. Hydraulic jack will be use to jacked precast
concrete pile into the suitable subsoil.
4. Short Precast concrete pile with pointed steel
toe , size of 300x300x600mm will be jack as
a first section (initial pile).

Sequence works for Miga @ Jack Underpinning:

5. Followed with extension piles with the size

300x300x750mm .
6. The pile is jacked until the pile has reached
the required depth.
7. Space between the top of the pile and
underside of the existing foundation is fill
with a final pinning concrete, with a ratio




1 Suitable method to replace existing foundation with piling.
2. Simple method of construction which include excavation,
steel casing, reinforcement and concrete works.
3. Bore pile is most suitable piling work for underpinning
because piling rig can be use in small and limited space
especially under existing foundation.
4. It can be used in space as low as 1.80 meter.
5. Quite and not produce a lot of vibration.
6. The best diameter pile for the underpinning work is
7. It will be done stage by stage.

Sequence works for Bore Pile Underpinning:

1. For strip foundation, excavation works is

done as per continuous underpinning.
Excavation is done bay by bay.
2. For pad foundation, excavation is done
under existing foundation.
3. Allow 1.80 meter depth for working space.
4. Locate Rig pile in working space where as
it functioning as pit excavator.
5. Use steel casing to prevent soil from fall and
fill the excavation pit.

Sequence works for Bore Pile

5. Excavate to suitable depth and arrange
reinforcement in the excavation pit.
6. lastly, pour concrete to the pit and compact the
concrete with air.
7. Steel casing will be bring out, one by one.
8. The best bored pile is the pile with toothing
around . It helps pile to bond strongly and
neatly with soil.
9. It is better to make the lower part of the
bore pile bigger than usual to support the pile.



Needle and pile is use if the wall to be

underpinned has a weak foundation that is
considered unsuitable for spanning over the
heads of jack piles.
This method uses pairs of jacks or usually
bored piles in conjunction with an in-situ
reinforced concrete beam or needle place
above the existing foundation.


The system works on the same principles as a

dead shoring arrangement relying on the
arching effect of bonded brickwork.
If water is encountered when using bored piles
a pressure pile can be used as an alternative.
There are two ways of arrangements to enable
the work to be carried out. Either from both
sides of the wall or from the external face

Sequence works for Needle and Pile Underpinning:

The needle and pile underpinning is

referring to the arrangement of pile in
underpinning works.
If using jack, the sequence works is same as
miga @ jack underpinning.
If insitu pile, the sequence works is same as
done in bored piles.





Low cost modern alternative to traditional underpinning for

stabilizing existing sub structural walls and foundations.
The pile is installed by using air flushed rotary percussion drill
from inside and outside of the building.
Spacing and depth of boring will depend on site conditions such
as the occurrence of solid bearing strata and extent of
structural damage.
Although disruption to the buildings interior is most likely, the
relatively short timescale and minimal excavation make for an
economic process.



Although disruption to the buildings interior

is most likely, the relatively short timescale
and minimal excavation make for an economic
The suitable pile diameter to be used in this
underpinning works is between 120mm



This method is only suitable for strip

Its enable walls to be underpinned in
continuous runs without the use of needles
or raking shoring.
The procedure is to cut away portions of
brickwork, above the existing foundation to
enable precast concrete stool to be
inserted and pinned.

Sequence works of Pynford Stooling

1. Cut holes in brickwork in the upper part of
existing foundation. This work will be done
alternately .
2. Stools or precast concrete beam positioned and
pinned in holes cut.
3. Remove brickworks between stools.
4. Fabricated and positioned reinforcement around
stools till it be ring beam reinforcement.
5. Erect formwork to cast concrete beam along
the underpinning works.

Sequence works of Pynford Stooling

5. Removed formwork after concrete matured.
6. Do final pinning with mortar ratio 1:3 where

*** Steel stool Heavy loads

PCC stool Light loads