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Quality Of Life Theory

QUALITY OF LIFE THERAPY


Applying a Life Satisfaction Approach to
Positive Psychology and Cognitive
Therapy
MICHAEL B. FRISCH

QOL, HAPPINESS, AND LIFE SATISFACTION


AS QUALITY OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Greatest challenge to clinical


psychologists : control of our
consciousness, our thoughts, feelings,
and physical sensations
Are you basically happy, content, or
satisfied with your life?
The affects usually associated with SWB :
contentment,satisfaction, happiness,
enjoyment, pleasure,and enthusiasm

THE BENEFITS OF HAPPINESS AND


LIFE SATISFACTION
Characteristics of the very happy

stably happy people (those who


experience positive emotions most of
the time)

more successful at achieving additional


goals in valued areas of life

TOWARD A
UNIFIED CONCEPTION OF QOL
Inconsistency in Measurement and
in Conceptualization
The pervasive lack of articulated
theory and the methodological
inconsistency (social work, nursing,
psychology, medicine, gerontology)

KEY FEATURES OF QOL


THEORY
1. Offers the Five Paths or CASIO rubric or
model of life satisfaction
2. Spells out how positive psychology
interventions can be incorporated into
clinical practice
3. Delineates how QOLT can be used
clinically
4. Suggests how activation of Becks
constructive mode with QOLT can benefit
nonclinical or pure positive psychology
populations

DEFINING QUALITY OF
LIFE
Quality of life refers to the degree of
excellence in life (or living) relative
to some expressed or implied
standard of comparison, such as
most people in a particular society
Social Indicators Movement,
measurement in gerontology, Clinical
and health

DEFINING HAPPINESS, WELL-BEING,


AND QOL

Affective theorists define SWB as


either positive affect alone or as a
preponderance of positive affect
(such as joy, contentment, or
pleasure) over negative affect (such
as sadness, depression, anxiety, or
anger) in an individuals experience
(Andrews & Robinson, 1991;
Bradburn, 1969).

LIFE SATISFACTION
APPROACH
life satisfaction is defined as a
cognitive judgmental process
dependent upon a comparison of
ones circumstances with what is
thought to be an appropriate
standard

QOL AS THE LIFE SATISFACTION


PART OF HAPPINESS
life satisfaction refers to our subjective
evaluation of the degree to which our
most important needs, goals, and wishes
have been fulfilled
Quality Of Life

Life Satisfaction

The 16 Areas of Life That May Constitute


a Persons Overall Quality of Life

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Health
Self-Esteem
Goals-and-Values/Spiritual Life
Money (or Standard of Living)
Work
Play (or Recreation)
Learning
Creativity

The 16 Areas of Life That May Constitute


a Persons Overall Quality of Life

9. Helping
10.Love (or Love Relationship)
11.Friends (or Friendships)
12.Children
13.Relatives
14.Home
15.Neighborhood
16.Community

PREDICTOR
OF HEALTH PROBLEMS AND
HEALTHRELATED EXPENDITURES
AS WELL AS FUTURE JOB
PERFORMANCE
AND
SATISFACTION
Job
performance and
satisfaction
as much
as 5 years in advance
Job accidents, unit profitability, and
productivity
School performance
Healthcare expenditures
Suicide
Deaths due to fatal injuries
Response of depressed clients to

PREDICTOR
OF HEALTH PROBLEMS AND
HEALTHRELATED EXPENDITURES
AS WELL AS FUTURE JOB
Chronic
pain syndrome
PERFORMANCE
AND SATISFACTION
Cardiovascular diseases such as
myocardial infarction
Other physical illnesses such as
respiratory tract infections and colds
Willingness to participate in prevention
programs aimed at eliminating unhealthy
behaviors like smoking
Adolescent substance abuse

PREDICTOR
OF HEALTH PROBLEMS AND
HEALTHRELATED EXPENDITURES
AS WELL AS FUTURE JOB
PERFORMANCE
AND
SATISFACTION
Adolescent
and adult
violent
and
aggressive behaviors
Peer relationship problems in adolescents
Impulsive, reckless behavior such as
unsafe sex practices
Somatoform disorders
Anxiety disorders
Major depressioninitial onset and
relapse

FIVE PATH OR CASIO MODEL OF


LIFE SATISFACTION AND QOL
INTERVENTIONS

Five Path or CASIO model of life satisfaction, happiness, and positive


psychology intervention. Note: The O element of
CASIO refers to the assumption that overall satisfaction may be increased
by boosting satisfaction in any valued area of life, even areas
Other than those of immediate concern. Interventions in any CASIO
element may boost happiness in an area of life like love or work.
In Becks cognitive theory, moderate to high happiness or life satisfaction
may be seen as part the positive schema cluster called the
constructive mode.

The C in the CASIO Model: Objective


Characteristics and Living Conditions

Objective life circumstances or living


conditions refer to the objective
physical and social characteristics of
an area of life whose ef fects on life
satisfaction and SWB are cognitively
mediated

A in CASIO Model:
Attitude
how a person interprets reality or a
set of circumstances once it is
perceived
This interpretation includes deciding
the implications that a given set of
circumstances has for a persons selfesteem (e.g., causal attributions) and
present or future well-being.

The S in the CASIO Model: Standards


of Fulfillment

People will feel more satisfied when


they perceive that their standards of
fulfillment have been met and less
satisfied when they have not been
met.

16 area

The I in the CASIO Model: Weighing Area


Satisfaction by Importance

satisfaction in highly valued areas of


life is assumed to have a greater
influence on evaluations of overall
life satisfaction than areas of equal
satisfaction judged of lesser
importance
Ex :

work
recreational

The O in the CASIO Model:


Overall Satisfaction
The gist of the O positive psychology
strategy is to focus on these areas of
lesser concern or focus in order to
increase overall positive affect.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

FOR
LIFE SATISFACTION AND HIGH
QOL:
TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM-UP
INFLUENCES ON LIFE
inadequate coping
skills or functional abilities,
SATISFACTION

especially social skills related to valued areas of life;


any of the following generalized cognitive styles or
personality traits
biological (heritable) vulnerabilities to anxiety,
depression, and low trait SWB/unhappiness
Social isolation or lack of social support, especially
close friends, mates, or confidant
early experiences with loss, uncontrollable events,
and unpredictable events

Integration of QOL Theory with Becks Cognitive Theory of Depression


and Related Disorders. Note: Based on Barlow (2002), Beck (1995), D.
A. Clark and Beck (1999), and Persons et al. (2001).
Related disorders include anxiety, anger, substance abuse, and
personality disorders. Weakness in the schemas of the constructive or
satisfaction mode may be a maintaining factor in depression just as
their strengthening may be an essential part of cognitive therapy
treatment

QOLTHEORY: VULNERABILITIES AND PROTECTIVE


FACTORS TO DISSATISFACTION,UNHAPPINESS,
DEPRESSION, AND RELATED DISORDERS

1. inadequate coping skills, problem-solving


skills, and/or social skills related to
valued areas of life
2. any of the following generalized
cognitive styles or personality traits
3. Biological (heritable) vulnerabilities to
anxiety, depression, low
SWB/unhappiness or exaggerated
neuroendrocrine reactions to stress
4. lack of social support, especially a close

QOLTHEORY: VULNERABILITIES AND PROTECTIVE


FACTORS TO DISSATISFACTION,UNHAPPINESS,
DEPRESSION, AND RELATED DISORDERS

5. Early experiences with loss,


uncontrollable events, and unpredictable
events
6. negative parenting experiences with
unengaged, neglectful or overprotective,
and emotionally reactive caretakers who
model ineffective coping skills and who
fail to foster autonomy and self-efficacy;
7. a low frequency of pleasant events

LIFE MANAGEMENT
SKILLS
small steps of progress toward long-term
goals are made every day, then we will
feel happier and more content instead of
dysphoric and frustrated, the feelings
associated with unsuccessful goalstrivings and coping. Indeed, successful
goal striving is negatively reinforced to
the extent that dysphoria and frustration
are reduced with goal attainment.

SATISFACTION IN FORMULATING
POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND
CLINICAL INTERVENTIONS FOR
CLINICALLY DISTURBED AND
NONCLINICAL CLIENT
POPULATIONS
CASIO rubric for problem solving and
QOL enhancement :
Happiness comes largely from
achieving ones goals and living ones
values in the areas of life that one
cares about.