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Single-Ended Fault Locator

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You are on page 1of 32

Zhihan Xu, Zhiying Zhang

GE Digital Energy

Outline

Introduction to five single-ended fault

location methods applied in relays

Factors affected location accuracy

Suggestions to understand location

results

Field case study

Advantages

Easy and straightforward to implement

Simple and not significantly increase

computation burden

No requirement for communication

channels and remote data

No need for system model analysis

Reasonable and acceptable result

Disadvantages

Amount of measurements is less than

the one available for multiple-ended

location methods

In order to reduce the number of

unknown variables and then solve the

location equations, some assumptions

are always applied

Method error is induced when some of

assumptions are not satisfied.

4

Eliminate the effect of load current

Reduce the effect of fault resistance

m

*

Im VG I sup

*

Im Z L1 I G I sup

Fault Type

VG

IG

Isup

AG

BG

CG

AB, ABG

VAF

VBF

VCF

VAF VBF

IAF

IAF

IAF

IAF

BC, BCG

VBF VCF

IBF ICF

CA, CAG

VCF VAF

ICF IAF

+ k3I0F

+ k3I0F

+ k3I0F

IBF

IAF IApre

IBF IBpre

ICF ICpre

(IAF IApre) (IBF

IBpre)

(IBF IBpre) (ICF

ICpre)

(ICF ICpre) (IAF

IApre)

ABC

Any of phase-phase

faults

Assume

system

is homogeneous

(I0)

Use zero sequence current distribution

factor to compensate nonhomogeneity

I

Z Z Z

D0

F0

IG0

G0

H0

L0

Z H 0 (1 m) Z L 0

d 0 0

Im VG 3I G 0 e j0

m

*

Im Z L1 I G 3I G 0 e j0

Im VG 3I G 0

m

*

Im Z L1 I G 3I G 0

(I2)

Use negative sequence current

distribution factor to compensate nonhomogeneity

Z Z Z

I

D2

F2

IG2

G2

H2

L2

Z H 2 (1 m) Z L 2

d 2 2

Im VG I G 2 e j 2

m

*

Im Z L1 I G I G 2 e j 2

Im VG I G 2

m

*

Im Z L1 I G I G 2

Utilize the source impedance

parameters to overcome the reactance

error caused by fault resistance, load,

or system non-homogeneity

V

Z

K1

I G Z L1

H1

Z L1

VG Z H 1

1

I G Z L1 Z L1

I G Z G1 Z H 1

K3

1

I G Z L1

Z L1

K2

Fault Type

VG

IG

IG

AG

BG

CG

AB, ABG

BC, BCG

CA, CAG

ABC

VAF

IAF + k3I0F

VBF

IBF + k3I0F

VCF

ICF + k3I0F

VAF VBF

IAF IBF

VBF VCF

IBF ICF

VCF VAF

ICF IAF

Any of phase-phase faults

1.5(IBF I0F) 1.5(IBpre I0pre)

1.5(ICF I0F) 1.5(ICpre I0pre)

(IAF IBF) (IApre IBpre)

(IBF ICF) (IBpre ICpre)

(ICF IAF) (ICpre IApre)

Reactance

A-G fault

B-CXFault

m

X A_ E

V

AF

I AF

A_ E

X L1

sin( V I )

1 ( K XE

IE

K RE sin( V E )

I AF

I

I

K RE ) E cos( E I ) K XE K RE E

I AF

I AF

X B_C

2

X B_C

X L1

2

I BF 2 I BF I CF cos( I B I C ) I CF

2

I BF 2 I BF I CF cos( I B I C ) I CF

V AF V AF V I AF I AF I

I E I E E ( I AF I BF I CF )

I AF I AF I A

I BF I BF I B

I CF I CF IC

Conditions

transposed line, constant earth resistivity,

zero fault resistance, negligible shunt

capacitance, and steady state

10

Increase load current

11

10 and 50 ohms fault resistance

Loop Reactance:

Under estimate

12

Larger resistance or longer distance, larger error

Zero sequence impedance is mostly

dependent on the earth resistivity, which

varies with the earth materials and soil

types

13

Location error using zero sequence

impedance calculated with 100 ohm*m earth

resistivity

14

Earth resistivity < general average earth

resistivity

Location error is inversely proportional to the

earth resistivity

The smaller resistivity, the larger error

Always under-estimate

resistivity

Location error is nearly proportional to the earth

resistivity

The larger resistivity, the larger error

Always over-estimate

15

error

Factors Non-homogeneous

Ignoring non-homogeneity

16

Factors Non-homogeneous

Applying accurate source impedances

Small error

Under-estimate for far-end faults

17

Stronger terminal

Small error

Negligible error for a homogeneous system18

Weak terminal

Large error

Negligible error for a homogeneous system19

Over-estimate

20

Under-estimate for phase-phase faults

21

Three-phase faults

phase-phase loops

22

Coupling

No compensation entirely parallel

half section

Over-estimate for both lines in service

23

Under-estimate for one line switched off and

Coupling

With compensation

Small error

24

Understanding Commons in

Methods

simulations that location results obtained by

Traditional Takagi

Modified Takagi using zero sequence current

Modified Takagi using negative sequence current

Eriksson

Homogeneous,

Balanced, and

Identical pre-fault and during-fault currents for

unfaulted phases

25

Understanding Suggestions

If two location results independently

calculated at both terminals using the

same single-ended location method,

Fault distance calculated at the weak

terminal has quite large error if the

system is non-homogeneous.

If both terminals are strong, the smaller

value is more accurate.

If both terminals are strong, the stronger

terminal has the more accurate distance

if the fault is located among the middle

zone of line.

26

Understanding Summary of

Influence

to summarize the influence, including,

Load current

Fault resistance

Earth resistivity

Non-homogeneity

Weak infeed

Line capacitance

Transposition

Parallel circuit

27

Plot measured fault location versus actual

fault location by compensating for known

system errors

Build system model

and line model

Apply faults

Calculate fault

distance using the

specified fault location

method

Plot the chart

28

True fault distance: 24.14 km (0.493 pu of 49

km)

Calculated distance and location error:

Methods

Results at local

terminal

Results at remote

terminal

Takagi

24.340 km / 0.49%

23.007 km / -2.23%

24.370 km / 0.55%

23.180 km / -1.87%

24.942 km / 1.72%

24.520 km / 0.86%

24.315 km / 0.44%

22.949 km / -2.35%

23.958 km / -0.28%

22.261 km / -3.75%

Modified Takagi

(I0)

Modified Takagi

(I2)

Eriksson

Loop Reactance

accurate

29

Influencing Factors

Factors

Eriksson

Loop Reactance

Fault resistance

Line

capacitance

Transposition

Earth resistivity

Parallel circuit

Nonhomogeneity

(ignoring)

Weak infeed

No effect

Under-estimate

Negligible

Negligible

Over-estimate

Unknown

Not applicable

Over-estimate

Over-estimate

Unknown

Not applicable

Under-estimate

Not applicable

Not applicable

Overall

Over-estimate

Under-estimate

30

Conclusions

The accuracy of each fault locator

method is examined for different fault

types and power system conditions

under different influencing factors.

Suggestions are presented to better

understand, analyze and validate fault

locator results.

Influencing factors are summarized to

describe a scope of effects.

A field case is studied.

31

Thank You

Questions?

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