gas flow

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gas flow

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2012 UPES

Gases are Compressible.

It expands to fill the vessel that contains the gas.

The molecules that constitute the gas are spaced farther

apart in comparison with a liquid and, therefore, a slight

change in pressure affects the density of gas more than

that of a liquid.

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Mass is the quantity of matter in a substance.

It is sometimes used interchangeably with weight.

Mass is measured in slugs in the (USCS) of units and

kilograms (kg) in System International (SI) units.

(1 slug = 14.5 kg)

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Standard Conditions

Standard conditions (also called base conditions) of

temperature and pressure (60F and 14.7 psia in USCS

units),

Standard conditions in SI system are 150 C & 101.325

Kpa.

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Volume

Volume of gas is measured in ft3 in USCS units and m3 in SI units.

Other units for volume include thousand ft 3 (Mft3 ) and million

ft3(MMft3) in USCS units and thousand m3 (km3 ) and million m3(Mm3)

in SI units

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NOTE:

In USCS units : M represents a thousand.

MM refers to million

In SI :

M (Mega) refers to million.

thousand standard cubic feet per day, whereas 15

Mm3/day means 15 million cubic meters per day in SI

units.

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SPECIFIC GRAVITY

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VISCOSITY

Since natural gas is a mixture of gases such as methane , ethane ,

and small portion of other gases, following formula is used to

calculate the viscosity from the viscosities of component gases:

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Ques

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COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR

It is a measure of how close a real gas is to an ideal gas.

The compressibility factor is defined as the ratio of

the gas volume at a given temperature and pressure to

the volume the gas would occupy if it were an ideal gas at

the same temperature and pressure.

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Modified ideal gas equation / eqn of state for real gases :

PV=ZnRT

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factor:

a. Standing-Katz method

b. Dranchuk , Purvis, and Robinson method

c. AGA method

d. CNGA method (most commonly used )

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This formula for the compressibility factor is valid when the average

gas pressure , Pavg , is more than 100 psig.

For pressures less than 100 psig, Z is approximately equal to 1.00

where

P avg = average gas pressure, psig

T f = average gas temperature, R (1R=0.556 K)

G = gas gravity (air = 1.00)

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compressibility factor of this gas at 1200 psig average pressure and a

temperature of 70F, using the CNGA method.

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HEATING VALUE

The heating value of a gas is defined as the thermal energy per unit

volume of the gas.

It is expressed in Btu / ft3

(1 BTU = 1055 Joules)

For a gas mixture , the term gross heating value is used.

It is calculated based upon the heating values of the component

gases and their mole fractions using the following equation:

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where

Hm = gross heating value of mixture, Btu/ft3

yi = mole fraction or percent of gas component i

Hi = heating value of gas component, Btu/ft3

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| Jul 2012|

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FLOW EQUATIONS

Several equations are available that relate the gas flow rate with gas

properties, pipe diameter and length, and upstream and downstream

pressures.

These equations are listed as follows:

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2. Colebrook-White equation

3. Modified Colebrook-White equation

4. AGA equation

5. Weymouth equation

6. Panhandle A equation

7. Panhandle B equation

8. IGT equation

9. Spitz glass equation

10. Mueller equation

11. Fritzsche equation

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Transmission Factor

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Case -1 (Single slope )

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H2 = downstream elevation, m

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In the calculation of Le it has been assumed that there is a single

slope between the upstream point 1 and the downstream point 2.

If, however, the pipe segment of length L has a series of slopes, then

we introduce a parameter j as follows for each individual pipe sub

segment that constitutes the pipe length from point 1 to point 2.

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segment of length L1 , L2 , etc. that make up the total length L. The

equivalent length term Le in is calculated by summing the individual

slopes as defined below.

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The terms j1, j2 , etc. for each rise or fall in the elevations of individual

pipe sub segments are calculated for the parameters s1, s2, etc. for

each segment ,from the pipeline inlet to the end of each segment.

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EROSIONAL VELOCITY

It is always tried to keep the flow rate of gas and hence the velocity as

high as possible in a pipeline.

But a high velocity in pipeline leads to vibration and noise .

In addition, higher velocities will cause erosion of the pipe interior over

a long period of time.

The upper limit of the gas velocity is usually calculated approximately

from the following equation:

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temperature, using the gas law , the maximum velocity can be

rewritten as

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where

Z = compressibility factor of gas, dimensionless

R = gas constant = 10.73 ft3 psia/lb-moleR

T = gas temperature, R

G = gas gravity (air = 1.00)

P = gas pressure, psia

Usually, an acceptable operational velocity is 50% of the above.

In the above eqn. P is the maximum pressure in pipeline that is at

inlet section.

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Soln.

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Reynolds No.

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WEYMOUTH EQUATION

In USCS units, the Weymouth equation is stated as follows:

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PANHANDLE A EQUATION

The Panhandle A Equation was developed for use in natural gas

pipelines, incorporating an efficiency factor .

In this equation instead of pipe friction , pipeline efficiency is used.

The general form of the Panhandle A equation is expressed in USCS

units as follows:

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Ques.2

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PANHANDLE B EQUATION

The Panhandle B equation, also known as the revised Panhandle

equation, is used in large diameter, high pressure transmission lines.

In fully turbulent flow, it is found to be accurate for values of

Reynolds number in the range of 4 to 40 million.

This equation in USCS units is as follows:

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Ques. 3

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FRICTION FACTOR

The term friction factor is a dimensionless parameter that depends

upon the Reynolds number of flow.

Two types of friction factor are commonly used :

i) Darcy friction factor.

ii) Fanning friction factor

Both friction factors are coorelated by the following equation :

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represented by the symbol f.

Following regimes will be considered :

Laminar flow :

Turbulent flow

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Laminar Flow

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Turbulent Flow

For turbulent flow, the friction factor is a function of the Reynolds

number, pipe inside diameter, and internal roughness of the pipe.

Many empirical relationships for calculating f have been put forth by

researchers.

The most popular correlations are :

i)

The Colebrook-White

ii)

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turbulent flow, it is appropriate to analyze the turbulent flow regime.

Turbulent flow in pipes (Re > 4000) is subdivided into three separate

regions as follows:

1. Turbulent flow in smooth pipes

2. Turbulent flow in fully rough pipes

3. Transition flow between smooth pipes and fully rough pipes

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pipes &fully rough pipes)

where

f = friction factor, dimensionless

D = pipe inside diameter, in.

e = absolute pipe roughness, in.

Re = Reynolds number of flow,

dimensionless

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where

f = friction factor, dimensionless

D = pipe inside diameter, in.

e = absolute pipe roughness, in.

Re = Reynolds number of flow, dimensionless

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Similarly, for turbulent flow in fully rough pipes, with Re being a large

number , f depends mostly on the roughness e and, therefore, the

friction factor equation reduces to :

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In 1964 and 1965, the American Gas Association (AGA) published a

report on how to calculate the transmission factor for gas pipelines to

be used in the General Flow equation.

This is sometimes referred to as the AGA NB-13 method.

Using the method outlined in this report, the transmission factor F is

calculated using the following method :

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Method of calculation F

First, F is calculated for the rough pipe (referred to as the fully

turbulent zone) by the following equation :

D = INTERNAL DIAMETER.

e = absolute pipe roughness

Next, F is calculated based on the smooth pipe law (referred to as

the partially turbulent zone).

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D f = pipe drag factor that depends on the Bend Index (BI) of the pipe.

The pipe drag factor D f is a parameter that takes into account the

number of bends, fittings, etc. Its value ranges from 0.90 to 0.99.

The Bend index is the sum of all the angles and bends in the pipe

segment, divided by the total length of the pipe section under

consideration

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transmission factor is used in the General Flow

Equation

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Ques :

Using the AGA method, calculate the transmission factor and friction

factor for gas flow in an NPS 20 pipeline with 0.500 in. wall thickness.

The flow rate is 200 MMSCFD, gas gravity = 0.6, and viscosity =

0.000008 lb/ft-sec.

The absolute pipe roughness is 700 in. Assume a bend index of

60, base pressure of 14.73 psia, and base temperature of 60F.

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