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SCADA

Communications for
Protection Engineers
Rich Hunt, Bogdan Popescu
GE Digital Energy

Texas A&M Relay Conference 2015

Introduction
Questions:
What does the SCADA team do?
RTUs are over why dont they use
relays?

Communications:
Integral part of SCADA
Adjunct function to protection

SCADA System

SCADA Functions
Type

Function

Description

Status

Metering

Measurements

Device Status
Device Alarms

Real time power system status


Non-operational data such as temperatures, gas
pressure, etc.
Real time equipment status
Real time equipment status

Control

Direct Trip & Close

Unsupervised control of primary equipment

SBO Trip & Close

Supervised control of primary equipment

Switching

Automatic switching sequences for primary equipment

Interlocking

Secure switching sequences to ensure operations take


place in a specific order to prevent equipment damage
or operational failures

Control Logic

Programmable logic used to implement switching,


interlocking, and other operations

Communications

Communications Gateway

Single point of remote communications access for the


substation for SCADA and engineering needs

Protocol Conversion

Converting data between various SCADA protocols


implemented by legacy devices

Data Concentration

Combining real time power system status data for


simpler transmission

Historian / DB

Data storage and management for long term analysis


and documentation

Security Firewall

Provide cyber security functionality for a substation.

SCADA Devices
Device

Typical Use

RTU

Remote Terminal Unit. Separate device, with I/O peripherals, for collecting status
information and issuing control commands

Gateway

Communications interface directly to other equipment. Some connection to I/O


peripherals.

HMI

Human Machine Interface. A separate graphical user interface that may include some
RTU and Gateway roles

Automation Controller / PLC Separate device to implement control logic if not available in RTU, Gateway, or HMI
I/O Peripherals

I/O devices such as measurement transducers and contact I/O to implement SCADA
functions

BCU

Bay control unit. Intended to be a bay level SCADA device for status and control of
equipment bays

Protective relay

Part of the SCADA system when providing status information, and/or as a control
point

Meters

Provides status information

Communications Methods
Register-based protocols
DNP3 (IEEE 1815)
Modbus
100s of others

Communications modeling
IEC 61850

DNP vs 61850 for Protection


Devices
DNP
Polls relays for data
Sends controls to relays
Requires points list
mapping in device
List from SCADA,
configuration by protection

IEC 61850
Reports from relay
Controls to relay
Dataset /
communications
configuration done
external to protection
GOOSE for protection,
SCADA
Who configures?
Who owns?

Operations: Protection vs. SCADA


Protection Operations
Protection trip, close
Reliable, deterministic, low latency,
unsupervised

SCADA operations
Normal operations
Trust but verify operations - SBO

Groups
Protection: owns relays, and direct trips
SCADA, owns BCUs and operations

Select Before Operate (SBO)


Goals
Eliminate single point of failure
Secure selection of command outputs
Reserve outputs for sequence

Why?
Switching sequences
Security between multiple control points

SBO State Machine

Protection commands cant


use SBO
Direct trip is not SBO

Who issues SBO?


SBO selection
at any level
Locks out
operation
from all other
levels
Allows
remote, local
operations
w/o risk

Implementing SBO

SBO Architectures

Protection owns
tripping

Protection, SCADA
have own trips

SBO Architectures

Protection, SCADA own their devices

SBO Architectures IEC 61850

Protection owns trip contact


Each group owns control
model

Each group owns trip contact,


control model

Process Bus

SBO and Process Bus

Recommendations
Ideal

Protection, SCADA own their


devices

Good Enough

Protection,
SCADA have
own trips

Final Thoughts
SCADA and protection groups have
different goals, needs
Good system design accommodates
both
Equipment control is the interface
point
Direct trip vs. SBO

Ownership of equipment, roles must


be negotiated
61850 complicates this discussion

Thank You
Questions?