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PERFECT

MODALS
PERFECT
MODAL

(Expressing regrets of past


actions)

Talking about the past.

Should
have

May /might
have

Express personal regret o judge anothers action :


(+) I should have studied harder. Unfortunately I didnt pass.
(-) I have a fever. I shouldnt have drunk cold coke.

Express a weak possibility .


(+) She may have won her new car in a raffle. She was bankrupt last
month.
(-) Jennifer Lopez got divorced. She may/might not have been in love with
Mark Anthony.

we had the ability or opportunity to do something in the past but did not
do it.
we wanted to do something but we didn't do it in the end. (intention)
Could have You could have told us about the new project!
Would
I would have bought that DVD but I didn't have enough money.
have

Must
have

Draw conclusions: we are almost sure something happened in the past.


Jorge didn't answer the phone when I called him. He must have been with
his wife.

More examples.
GRAMMAR STRUCTURE

Should
Could/would
Must
May/might
(modals)

Have
(auxiliary)

Verb
Past
participle

More examples

-Brazil should have won the world cup this


year.

(but unfortunately, it didnt)..

I should have bought that house. I would


have been happy there.

I wanted to do
something but I
didn't do it in the
end.

This computer is terrible!!.I could have


bought a different computer.
I
had
the
opportunity to buy
another one but I
didnt do it.

Jorge is
I dont know for
certain. It is a
speculation of
what would
happened.

Jorge is sick. He may have eaten


rotten food.

t I
u
B
.
ly
Probab ow for
kn
dont
sure.
lusion
c
n
o
c
Its a
hat I
w
n
o
I draw see.
r
know o

Peter has a nice car. It must


have cost a lot of money.

Carl failed the test. He must not have studied


enough.

Carl failesd

Probably. But I dont


know for sure.
Its a conclusion I
draw. Maybe theres
any other reason.

Lets summarize
Regrets
about the
past actions

Speculate
about the
past

Should have + past


participle

Would (intention)
Could (ability)
+ verb
May/might
participle

+ have

Draw
conclusions
about the past

Must +have+
participle

I regret having eaten so much food!


But unfortunately, I did.

I regret not having studied medicine! But


unfortunately, I didnt.
I think (speculate) that if I had studied medicine, I would
have been rich and happy.

The fact

These are the conclusions drawn from


the fact

Create a conversation:
A friend forgot his wedding anniversary, tell him
what acts he could make to prevent this situation.
You argue with a friend about the winner of the
world cup. You didnt like the winner.
There was a car accident near your house, teel
you neighboor what you think possibly happened.
You have been calling your wife all day but she
didnt answer. Youre almost sure she is
You just bought a new house but you realise that
it wasnt a good choice because there is another
cheaper. You comment it to a friend.