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Chapter 12
Section 1

Movement of Materials
 The cardiovascular system- circulatory
system that consists of the heart,
blood vessels, and blood
 The cardiovascular system carries
needed substances to cells such as
oxygen and glucose to produce energy
 It carries waste products away from cells
such as carbon dioxide
 It transports white blood cells that attack
disease-causing mico-organisms
Structure and Function of the
The Heart’s Structure
 How the Heart Works

 The heart has two sides- a  In the first phase the

right and left- heart muscle relaxes
separated by a wall of
tissue as the atria fills with
 It has two upper blood
chambers- atrium that
receive blood that
 In the second phase,
comes into the heart the atria contracts
 Ventricles- two lower and fills the
chambers that pump ventricles ; ventricles
blood out of the heart
then contract to
 Valves- flap of tissue that
prevents blood from pump blood forward
flowing backward 
located between each
ventricle and the blood
vessels that carry blood
Regulation of Heartbeat
 Pacemaker- group of cells located in
the right atrium, sends out signals
that make the heart muscle contract
 The pacemaker responds to the
body’s oxygen needs by adjusting
the heart rate
 Pacemakers can become damaged,
and an artificial one implanted
The Heart
 Arteries- blood vessels that carry
blood away from the heart
 Capillaries- tiny vessels into which
blood flows and substances are
exchanged between the blood and
body cells and back to the veins
 Veins- Vessels that carry blood back to
the heart
Two Loops
Loop Two: to the Body and

Loop One: to the Lungs and Back

Back  In the second loop, blood is
 In the first loop, blood pumped from the heart
travels from the heart throughout the body and
to the lungs and then then returns again to the
back to the heart heart
 Blood flows from the
 The left atrium fills with
oxygenated blood from
body into the right the lungs and that then
atrium and contains moves to the left
little oxygen ventricle
 Blood then flows to the
 Blood then flows into the
aorta- the largest artery
right ventricle out to in the body
the lungs  From the aorta, oxygen
 From the lungs oxygen rich blood flows to the
rich blood returns to body and then back to
the left side of the the right atrium
heart 
The Force of the Ventricles
 The ventricles of the
heart exert a force on
the blood inside them
 The force moves blood
out of your heart and
into your arteries
 The contraction of the left
ventricle exerts a much
stronger force than that
of the right ventricle
because it must move
blood throughout the
body while the right
ventricle moves blood
only to the lungs
 What is the function of the cardiovascular system?

 What function does the heart perform?

 Describe the route that blood takes through the

cardiovascular system. Begin with blood leaving
the left ventricle.

 What is the heart’s pacemaker? To what internal

stimulus does the pacemaker respond?