Presented byIndu Kumari Manoranjan Paul Nalinaksh Tripathi Ranjit Kumar Nayak Saurabh Kumar Soni

• Learning is (relatively) permanent change in behaviour as the result of experience.

Theories Of learning
• Behavioural
Classical conditioning Operant conditioning

• Cognitive
Social learning

Classical conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such as response.

Experiment of Ivan
Presentation of food Salivation response

Before conditioning

Experiment of Ivan Pavlov

Presentation of food

Salivation response

Sound of bell

During conditioning

Experiment of Ivan Pavlov

Sound of bell

Salivation response

After conditioning

Operant Conditioning
• A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behaviour leads to reward or prevents a punishment. • Consequences determine the behaviour that results in learning.

Operant Conditioning
• B.F. Skinner- Skinner Box

Operant Conditioning
Types of reinforcement

- Positive reinforcement - Negative reinforcement

Operant Conditioning
Schedules of reinforcement
. • • • • Continuous Fixed interval Variable interval Fixed ratio Variable ratio

Schedule of reinforcement
Reinforcement schedules Nature of reinforcement Effects of reinforcement Example


Reward given after each desired behaviour

Fast learning of new behaviour but rapid extinction


FixedInterval Variable Interval Fixed Ratio

Reward given at fixed time Average and irregular intervals performance with rapid extinction Reward given at variable time interval

Weekly pay checks

Moderately high and stable Pop quizzes performance with slow extinction High and stable performance Piece-rate pay attained quickly but also with rapid extinction Very high performance with Commissioned sales slow extinction

Reward given at fixed amount of output

Variable Ratio

Reward given at variable amount of out put

Social learning Theory
• The view that people can learn through observation and direct experience. • Learning occurs by modelling the behaviour of others.

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