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CENTRAL OPERATING STATION (COS)

COMPARISON OF SYSTEMS

Systems, telemetering or control, may


be either pneumatic, hydraulic, or
electronic-electric, or combination.
Hydraulic systems are generally more
restricted in application. Basically the
technique is as for pneumatics but fluid
cannot be allowed to escape and a
recovery-storage system is required.

Advantages of Pneumatic system:


Less expensive initially, this is in spite
of tubing and air supply costs.
No heat generation and safe in
explosive atmosphere.
Less susceptible to power supply
variation, but do have appreciable time
lags.
Direct application, without transducers,
to large final power actuators.

Advantages of an electronic system:


Small and adaptable with cheap flexible
transmission lines.
No moving parts can however generate
heat.
Stable, generally accurate and very
short time lags.
Low power consumption, Direct
application to computer but often
needs final control element
transducers.

Advantages of hydraulic system:


Nearly instant response as fluid is
virtually incompressible.
It can readily provide any type of
motion
It can have accurate position control
It has high amplification of power

CONTROL IN DIFFERENT SECTION IN CENTRAL OPERATING STATION (COS)

Permits a one man operation of the


power plant through bridge control of
the propeller from full ahead or full
astern.
It is the centralized area from
observing and operating the major
components of the system.
The nerve center of the automated
engine room

CONTROLS FOUND IN THE COMBUSTION SECTION

Control of main steam pressure

Control of superheated temperature


Control of water level

Control of fuel oil pressure


Control of air to burners

Control of feed water regulating valve


Control of feed pump speed

Burner Management

Control of burner
Fail safe protection

CONTROLS FOUND IN THE SERVICE SECTION

Ship service air supply


Central air supply
Fire pump system
Fresh water system
Sea water service system
Generator information
Evaporator information

CONTROLS FOUND IN THE PROPULSION SYSTEM

Throttle control
Engine order telegraph
Shaft speed tachometers
Main Lub oil pumps
Main vacuum control
Monitoring system
Condensate system
Temperature control

MONITORING SYSTEMS

To replace the human operator, who


would normally carry out the rule of
monitoring any operation, automatic
monitoring systems must be
introduced. Monitoring systems vary in
both size and complexity, ranging from
a simple make-break switch operated
by pressure to activate an alarm, to a
sophisticated sequential scanning
system.

Sequential monitoring of sensors and


comparison of readings with a stored
data bank of alarm limit settings. Some
modern systems can have over 6000
monitoring points around the ship.
Data acquisition and storage on
computer tapes or disks for later
reference. Some ships now will
automatically transmit this data by
satellite to the company headquarters
for statistical analysis.

Data logging of monitored processes,


with trend analysis computer VDU
displays.
Assessment of the machinery operating
conditions, and automatic adjustment
to provide the optimum operating
conditions for the prevailing conditions.
This particular facility may be used to
adjust the speed of a ship in passage to
give the greatest fuel economy
possible.

Machinery condition monitoring. The


machinery may be fitted with sensors
to monitor the combustion process and
general health of the engine to aid
efficient running and predictive
maintenance schedules.

ALARM SYSTEMS

Within the rules and regulations are features


which must be included into the design of
control equipment, in particular the alarm
system. 4, 5, 6, Alarm systems are associated
with control and safety systems and are
normally an integral part of the monitoring
system. The design must allow the alarm
system to function independently of any control
or safety system, where practical, so that the
alarm system will still function if there is a fault
in these other systems.

There are many other different features


which may be fitted to alarms systems
and these include:
automatic reset where the alarm will
automatically reset after normal
conditions have been restored (but this
would not be acceptable to classification
societies unless the alarm has already
been accepted or acknowledged);
manual reset where the alarm must be
manually reset after normal conditions
are restored;

lock in on fleeting alarms where the


alarm condition is still displayed even
though the fault condition has quickly
appeared and then disappeared;
time delay to prevent raising of spurious
alarm signals;
event recorder which prints out a record
of the alarm details and the sequence and
time of alarms;
first up or first out enabling
identification of the first alarm that
operated within a group or flood of
alarms.

ENGINE ROOM ALARMS


Machinery fault alarm systems
A system of alarm display must be
provided which ensures identification of
faults in the propulsion plant, and other
essential machinery. Audible and visual
alarms are to be operated when a fault
condition arises and the fault selection
system must inform the engineers of the
precise nature of the fault.

Automatic shutdown systems


When certain plant variables (e.g. lub oil
pressure) exceeded prescribed upper or lower
limits, the operation of the main propulsion
plant or other essential machineries (e.g.
electrical generation plant) may become
dangerous, or result in costly damage. Hence
there must be shutdown system which causes
the machinery involved to shutdown in the
correct sequence. In all cases alarms would be
triggered in the main console and on the bridge.

Bilge level alarm system


An alarm system must be provided to
warn the liquid in the machinery space
when the bilge has reached a high level.
Automatic starting of the bilge pump is
not advisable because of the possibility
of pollution.


FIRE DETECTION ALARM SYSTEM

A fully automatic fire detection system must


be fitted in the machinery space in all UMS
certified ships, satisfying the following
conditions:
A fire detector indicator panel is to be
located on the bridge, in such a position that
a fire in the machinery space cannot make it
inoperative. When the engine room consist
of more than on compartment the alarm
panel should be sectionalized.

The audible fire alarm must have a tune


which clearly distinguishes it from all other
alarms
Failure of the fire detection alarm system
power supply must be indicated by visual and
audible means.
Detector heads, or an approved design must
be fitted so that all potential fire hazards are
guarded.
The fire detection alarm system must be
capable of being tested, and manually
triggered.

MODULE 6

ELECTRICAL POWER SOURCES

A. Where the electrical power requirements


are normally supplied by two or more
generators operating in parallel, arrangements
are to be provided e.g. by load shedding, so
that the remaining generators are kept in
service in the event of loss of a generator. The
load shedding schedule should take account of
the essential services, particularly with regard
to those necessary for the safe automatic shut
down of the plant, and the alarm system.

B. In addition to this, an emergency


generator must be provided, which is
outside the machinery space. This should
be automatically started when the
normal generators plant fails. It must be
of sufficient capacity to power all
essential electrical equipment for storage
and propulsion including all necessary
automatic sequential operations, alarm
panels, and essential machinery space
lighting. This power should be available
within 5 seconds of loss of service
generation plant.

C. In addition to this, the alarm self


monitoring equipment including the fire
alarm system may have separate battery
supply which comes into use should the
emergency generator fail.

SAFETY SYSTEMS

Safety is of paramount importance in any


control system. A safety system is a
system which reduces dangers and risks
of injury to personnel and damage to
machinery. Any safety system should
operate automatically to prevent
endangering both personnel and
machinery.

Typical Safety Systems

1. MACHINERY AUTO START-UP

These systems are provided with a stand-by


device which will automatically start in the event
of the running device failing through a fault
condition. The start-up of the stand-by device
must restore the normal operating conditions and
give an alarm on failure of the online device.
Electrical generators can be arranged with
automatic start-up, which can be initiated by a
failure of the running generator, or by the
electrical load for one generator. In the latter
case the switchboard must also be fitted with
automatic synchronizing equipment to allow the
two generators to run in parallel and load share.

2. REDUCTION OF POWER

With this safety system the machinery


output power is temporarily reduced to
meet the prevailing conditions. There
are several situations which may
trigger this device, the most common
being excessive high temperatures, low
pressures or high loads on the
machinery.

3. EMERGENCY GENERATORS

An emergency generator must be provided,


which is outside the machinery space. This
should be automatically started when the
normal generators plant fails. It must be of
sufficient capacity to power all essential
electrical equipment for storage and
propulsion including all necessary automatic
sequential operations, alarm panels, and
essential machinery space lighting. This
power should be available within 5 seconds
of loss of service generation plant.

4. MACHINERY SHUT DOWN

With the shut down safety system the


machinery is protected from critical
conditions by shutting off the fuel
supply or power supply thereby
stopping the machinery. In some cases
a shut down will follow a reduction of
power if the prevailing conditions
continue to develop into a critical
situation or if no remedial action is
taken after a certain time period.

5. BILGE LEVEL DETECTION SYSTEM

An alarm system must be fitted to


provide warning when the content of
the machinery space bilge wells has
reached a predetermined level. This
level must be low enough for the
contents of the bilges not to overflow
onto the tank tops.

BILGE WATER MOVING OVER THE TANK TOPS IS PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS FOR SEVERAL
REASONS.

It can be a fire hazard, especially if there is oil in the bilge


water. A local fire could rapidly spread through the
machinery space.
There is danger of free surface effect on the stability of the
vessel.
There is a possibility water damage to electrical cables and
motors, from splashing.
Some ships are fitted with automatic pumping for bilges.
Before the bilge level reaches the alarm level a float
controller will activate the bilge pump, open the required
valves and activate the bilge pump. The system must be
designed to avoid causing pollution or masking an actual
leak situation.

6. FIRE DETECTION ALARM SYSTEMS

The fire detector indicator and alarm


system must be situated in such a
position that fire in the machinery
spaces will not make it inoperative.
Commonly it is sited on the bridge or in
a special fire control centre.

FIRE DETECTORS

In order to assess the efficiency of the various


types of fire detectors it is necessary to
consider the fire spectrum. Most ship fires start
extremely slowly; frequently a smoldering or
glowing fire can burn for some time, the lack of
oxygen or fuel preventing it spreading. In many
recorded cases, it was only after the opening of
a door or the fracturing of a fuel line that
caused the fire to burst into open flames, thus
causing a sharp rise in temperature.

Photoelectric smoke detectors


This detector will detect smoke based on
the percentage of obstruction or
reflection produced by the visible
particles in the smoke. A number of
types are available, all of which contain a
light source and a photoelectric receiver.
Dependent on the design of the device,
an alarm will be raised upon an increase
or decrease in the light transmitted to
the receiver, owing to the obstruction or
reflection of the light source.

Infra red flame detector


Where it is known that a risk likely to
involve flame at a very early stage, it is
possible to detect the electromagnetic
radiation from the flame and avoid the
delay of waiting for smoke, combustion
products of heat to reach the detector.

Heat detectors
The most commonly used heat detector heat is the
rate of rise/fixed temperature type, which is dual
action thermostat operating at a predetermined
temperature or when the temperature rises
unusually quickly, as would occur in the case of a
fast burning fire, in which case the detector would
operate and raise an alarm before the fixed
temperature setting was reached.
Operation depends on differential movement of two
bimetallic strips, wound as springs on a common
axis, with one spring is shielded. Fast temperature
change produces differential movement and closure
of contacts affixed to the springs, causing an alarm
to be raised before the fixed temperature stop is
reached.

7. CONTROL PANELS

The following features are incorporated


in control panels:
Audible fire alarm circuits
identification of zone of fire
Automatic change-over from normal
power supply to emergency power
supply
System fault alarm circuits