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Why Cant I Start My

Motor? Lessons Learned


From Bad Motor Protective
Settings
Terrence Smith
Jeyanth Yogaratnam
Thomas Ernst
GE Digital Energy
Texas A&M Relay Conference 2015

Motor Inhibit

TCU / Start Inhibit Example


Thermal Capacity required to
Start
For
example, if the THERMAL
CAPACITY USED for the last 5
starts is 24, 23, 27, 25, and
21% respectively, the
LEARNED STARTING CAPACITY
is
27% Capacity
1.25 = 33.75%
used.
Thermal
used due
to
Overload
If the motor had been
running in an overload
condition prior to stopping,
the thermal capacity would
be
some is
value;
say 80%.
If Motor
Stopped:
When the motor has cooled
and the level of thermal
capacity used has fallen to
66%, a start will be
permitted.

TCU Generated During a


Start

TCU Generated During a


Start

Case Study:
Start Inhibit Set Too
High

Case Study: Start Inhibit Set


Too High
Faculty had a high inertia load with a
learned TCU at start of 78%
Start Inhibit Margin was set at 25%
TCU has to fall to 100-78*1.25=2.5% before
a start is allowed
A more liberal setting of 5% would have
allowed a restart at 18% TCU

Case Study: Start Inhibit Set


Too High

Lessons Learned

Start Inhibit needs to match the application


With high inertia motor applications,
enabling the start inhibit feature is not
helpful
If the motor start TCU is a reasonable level
(such as less than 60%), it is always
recommend to enable the start inhibit
function with reasonable TCU used margin
setting to prevent unnecessary start inhibit

Case Study:
Cooling Time
Constants Set as
Cooling Times

Case Study: Cooling Time


Constants Set as Cooling
Times
Facility found cooling times of 60 minutes
(cold) and
125 minutes (hot)...

And set these times as cooling time


constants in the motor relay
This lay dormant for several years
Until a trip occurred

Case Study: Cooling Time


Constants Set as Cooling
Times
Inhibit was set to 25%
with a learned start
TCU of 66%
TCU has to fall to 24%
to start
With cooling time
constant stopped set to
125 minutes, it takes
178 minutes to cool to
24% after a trip
With the correct
cooling time constant

Case Study:
Hot/Cold Ratio Set
Incorrectly

Case Study:
Hot /Cold Ratio Set
Incorrectly
Facility found
cooling times of
60 minutes (cold)
and user
erroneously set
the Hot/Cold Ratio
to 13% rather than
87%
This compounded

Case Study:
Hot /Cold Ratio Set
Incorrectly
RTD
Bias

Settings of Minimum,
Middle, and Maximum
Minimum design
ambient
Middle ambient + rise +
hotspot
Maximum insulation
rating

Case Study:
Hot /Cold Ratio Set
Incorrectly
RTD
Bias
Minimum = 40C
Middle = 40C + 55C +
10C = 105C
Learned Starting TCU =
70%
Hot/Cold = 0.13.55C
Stator had a TCU of 20%
Hot/Cold = 0.8755C

Case Study:
Restart of a High Inertia
Load

Case Study:

Restart of a High Inertia Load


(ID
Fan)
Motor Data
Safe Stall time = 27s /
20s
Number of
consecutive starts =
3/2
Starting time = 35s &
71s @ 80%

Case Study:

Restart of a High Inertia Load


(ID
Fan)
Lessons Learned
Immediate restart may not be available
Voltage dependent curves help with starting, but not restart
Soft starting methods can help the situation
It is necessary to obtain accurate information about the motor
before designing the motor relay set points
In some cases, it is necessary to consult the motor
manufacturer when it comes to the selection of the overload
curves in an application where the motor starting curves and
thermal damage curves are very close to one other

Case Study:
Other Blocking Elements

Case Study: Other Blocking


Inhibits

Do not forget about the other blocking


elements that will prevent a motor from
starting
Starts Per Hour Lockout
Time Between Starts Lockout

If I have a motor relay


with a thermal model, are
other inhibits really
necessary?

Yes

Final Thoughts on Motor


Lockout

The inhibit margins, if set too high can prevent a


timely restart of the motor
Cooling time and cooling time constants are not the
same thing. You must know what value the motor
relay is expecting, usually cooling time constant
The ratio of the hot to cold safe stall time affects the
motor steady state thermal capacity used, which
can affect the motor thermal model and inhibit
restart
High inertia loads use large quantities of thermal
capacity used during a start. This requires
significant cooling times in the event of a trip.
Starts per hour, restart rate, and time between
starts may be redundant, but is probably necessary
from a warranty standpoint

Thank You
Questions?