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# PHYSIOLOGY

Instructor:
Dr. John Ramcharitar

## The resting membrane potential

Lecture Outline

Membrane Polarization
Equilibrium Potentials
GHK Equation
Electrochemical Driving Forces
Key Neurophysiological Techniques
Passive Membrane Properties

## The Phospholipid Membrane

Hydrophilic regions
Hydrophobic regions
Phospholipid bilayer

2005 Elsevier

Lipid Bilayer:
The lipid bilayer is a barrier to water and water-soluble substances
CO2
ions

glucose

N2

H2O
urea

O2

halothane

Cell Membrane
but, other molecules can still get across the membrane!
CO2

urea
ions

H2O

glucose

N2

O2

isoflurane

Permeability coefficients

Relative
Permeabilities
(cm/sec)
(coefficients are for an artificial lipid bilayer)

water
urea
glycerol
glucose

Cl
K+
Na+
-

10-2

high permeability

10-4
10-6
10-8
10-10
10-12

low permeability

## The Nerst equation can be used to

determine E

Lecture Outline

Membrane Polarization
Equilibrium Potentials
GHK Equation
Electrochemical Driving Forces
Key Neurophysiological Techniques
Passive Membrane Properties

## The Nernst Equation

Eion = 2.303 RT/zF.log [ion]o/[ion]i

## The Nernst Equation

Eion = 2.303 RT/zF.log [ion]o/[ion]i
R = gas constant
T = absolute temperature
z = charge of the ion
[ion]o = ion concentration outside
[ion]I = ion concentration inside

## The Nernst Equation

Equilibrium Potentials

## Calculates the exact value of an

equilibrium potential in mV
Takes into consideration:
Charge of the ion
Temperature
Ratio of the external and internal ion
concentrations

## Simplified Nernst Equation

Ex = 58/z.log [ion]o/[ion]i

Group Exercise
Complete the following table:

Group Exercise
Complete the following table:

## Why must [K+]0 be

regulated?

Why is Vm Ek?

Lecture Outline

Membrane Polarization
Equilibrium Potentials
GHK Equation
Electrochemical Driving Forces
Key Neurophysiological Techniques
Passive Membrane Properties

Nernst Eq

Nernst Eq

GHK Eq

Lecture Outline

Membrane Polarization
Equilibrium Potentials
GHK Equation
Electrochemical Driving Forces
Key Neurophysiological Techniques
Passive Membrane Properties

## Electrochemical Driving Forces

Driving force = Vm Ex
The larger the driving force, the
larger the observed current
V = IR
I = V/R
Conductance (G) = 1/R
=> I = GV
=> Ionic curent (Ix) = Gx(Vm Ex)

## Electrochemical Driving Forces

Driving force = Vm Ex
The larger the driving force, the
larger the observed current
V = IR
I = V/R
Conductance (G) = 1/R
=> I = GV
=> Ionic curent (Ix) = Gx(Vm Ex)

## Electrochemical Driving Forces

Lecture Outline

Membrane Permeability
Transport Proteins
Key Neurophysiological Methods
Patch Clamping
Passive Membrane Properties

The extracellular
approach

The intracellular
approach

Ion Channels

in

out

25 mV
Na+
Fig. 4.5
Figure 4-6A

Ion Channels

in

out

25 mV
Na+
Fig. 4.5

Patch-Type Recordings

Patch-Type Recordings

Patch-Type Recordings

Patch-Type Recordings

Patch-Type Recordings

Patch-Type Recordings

Lecture Outline

Membrane Permeability
Transport Proteins
Key Neurophysiological Methods
Patch Clamping
Passive Membrane Properties

Lecture Outline

Membrane Permeability
Transport Proteins
Key Neurophysiological Methods
Patch Clamping
Passive Membrane Properties

## Do neurons display electrical properties

in the absence of an action potential?

100
%

37%

100
%

37%