Vocabulary Development

Rose Ann Sta. Ana & Margaux Marie Panlilio

1.Context Clues 

Words in the sentence which help in understanding the specific meaning of a new unfamiliar word. The special meaning of a word depends on the other words in the sentence of the surrounding group of sentences. Clues may be in the form of : definition, appositive or double comma clues, mood clues, inferences, structural analysis, phonetic analysis, antonym, synonym, word cluster or categorization.
The floors of the restaurant were extremely scuzzy. They were covered with spilled grease, crumbs of food, and cigarette butts.

2.Multiple Meaning of Words 

Words having several meanings
I turned on the light so I could see better. A. The feather was very light. B. She wore light colors because it was going to be a hot day. C. There is only one light in the living room.

3.Word Association 

This explains or describes the similarity between the relationship of r of words.
tower, wrist, guard, dog Water Collar Under Joint Watch In this case, the answer would be WATCH. Here are the relationships: watchtower, wristwatch, watch is a synonym for guard, and watchdog


To collocate is to group or place together in some order or system

Let's give Mr Jones a round of applause. The ceasefire agreement came into effect at 11am. I'd like to buy two bars of soap please.


A cluster is a group of similar or related things that maybe written around a word which serves as a cover term.
Men Men - Magnificent muscles moving, Mysterious yet Malleable Minds like a maelstrom merging , Macho yet magnetic and mercurial . In the midst of a million marvelous males , I feel a manic mingling. The miracle of mere men- they make me melt. --S.R.

6.Cline (or Scaling) 

Means a slope or graded sequence of difference within a species/ series
"freezing", "cold", "cool", "tepid", "warm", "hot", and "scorching"


A common process of forming words in which we cut off the beginning or the end.
fries (from French fried potatoes), Betty (from Elizabeth) prof for professor, phys-ed for physical education, poli-sci for political science, and burger for hamburger.

doc, ad, auto, lab, sub, deli, porn, demo, and condo.


The process of forming a word from initial letters of several words.
A.M. / P.M. "ante meridiem" (before noon) / "post meridiem" (afternoon) ATM automated teller machine rpm revolutions per minute


Some words are formed by fusing the first part of one word with the last part of another.

Emoticon = Glitz =

emotion + icon glamour + ritz


Words are formed by partial or complete repitition.
okey-dokey, wee-wee and zig-zag

nursery with choo-choos adult life to hanky-panky Jeepers-creepers


The dictionary meaning of a word that has been handed down to us.

home, house, residence and dwelling


Meanings that are fashioned out of the speakers¶ past experiences and associations. Connotation:
Home: cozy, loving, comfortable House: the actual building or structure Residence: cold, no feeling Dwelling: primitive or basic surroundings

youngster, child, kid, little one, small fry, brat, urchin, juvenile, minor. Some of these words tend to carry favorable connotations (little one), others unfavorable (brat), and still others fairly neutral connotations (child). Calling a young person a brat lets our readers know at once how we feel about the rotten kid.


Refers to the big class or group to which a specific word belongs.
waitperson and executive.


http://www.authorstream.com/presentation/RSJandu-187-meaning PNU Reviewer for the Licensure Examination for Teachers Specific Principles and Methods of Teaching Communication Arts in English and Filipino by Prof. Josephine M. Calamlam & Prof. Elvira R. Liwanag http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wak014001&article_id=285&chapter_id=6&chapter_title=Language&article_title=Abbrevi ations_and_Acronyms http://www.instructorweb.com/lesson/connotationdenotation.asp http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/generic http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cline http://grammar.about.com/od/words/a/connotations.htm http://grammar.about.com/od/c/g/clippingterm.htm http://www.youthink.com/quiz.cfm?action=go_detail&sub_action=take&obj_id=537 http://www.gabrielerico.com/Main/ClusteringSampleVignettes.htm



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