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Foodborne Illnesses

World Scenario:

 2.1 million people died from diarrheal


diseases in 2000 in the world
 76 million cases of foodborne diseases
results in 325,000 hospitalizations and
5,000 deaths in the US in 1999

Cost of Foodborne Illness

U.S. - $6.9 billion/yr.


South Korea - $16-$28 million/yr.
Australia - $1.7 billion in 1999
Philippine Scenario:

 Food-borne illnesses - classified as


diarrheal disease
 Diarrheal disease - #1 cause of
morbidity (1,134.80 morbidity per
100 000 population)
9th of the top 10 causes of
mortality
79% of foodborne illnesses
cases in 1996 occurred while in
the workplace, parties, and
weddings or outside the home
Highly Susceptible Populations

Young
Old
Pregnant
Immuno-compromised
Signs and symptoms

Fever
Upset stomach Diarrhea

Dehydration
Vomiting (sometimes severe)
Possible more severe conditions

Meningitis

Paralysis
Don’t count on these to
test for food safety!

Sight

Smell Taste
Even IF tasting would tell …
Why risk getting sick?

A “tiny taste” may not protect


you … as few as
10 bacteria could cause some
foodborne illnesses!
Why gamble with your health?

It takes about ½ hour


to 6 weeks to become
ill from unsafe foods.

You may become


sick later even if
you feel
OK after eating.
Why risk other people’s health?

Is the food safe for


everyone at the table? Some people have
a greater risk for
foodborne illnesses.
A food you safely eat
might make others sick.
Cost of Foodborne Illness in the
Food Service Industry
Ten Least Wanted
Foodborne Pathogens
• Campylobacter • Staphylococcus
jejuni aureus
• Clostridium • Shigella sp.
botulinum • Toxoplasma gondii
• E.coli O157:H7 • Vibrio vulnificus
• Listeria • Yersinia
monocytogenes enterocolitica
• Salmonella spp.
Ten Least Wanted
Foodborne Pathogens
Causative Agent Source of Illness Symptoms Prevention
Methods

Campylobacter jejuni Raw poultry, meat, Diarrhea, fever, Cook food


and unpasteurized abdominal pain, thoroughly, avoid
milk nausea, headache, cross-contamination,
muscle pain, & avoid unpasteurized
sometimes bloody milk
stool
Clostridium Soil & water Double vision, Practice time-
botulinum inability to swallow, temperature control
speech difficulty, & for large bulky foods,
progressive paralysis cool leftovers rapidly
of respiratory system
Ten Least Wanted
Foodborne Pathogens
Causative Agent Source of Illness Symptoms Prevention Methods

E. coli O157:H7 Infected cattle Severe abdominal Cook ground beef


pain, bloody thoroughly, avoid cross-
diarrhea, nausea, contamination, practice
vomiting good personal hygiene

Listeria Animal intestines, Nausea, vomiting, Avoid raw milk, cook


monocytogenes soil, milk, leafy headache, fever, foods to proper
vegetables, backache, respiratorytemperatures, avoid
poultry, meat, distress, meningitis cross-contamination,
seafood, & clean and disinfect
prepared, chilled,
ready-to-eat foods
Ten Least Wanted
Foodborne Pathogens
Causative Agent Source of Illness Symptoms Prevention Methods

Salmonella spp. Poultry, eggs, Nausea, fever, Avoid cross-


meats, fish, milk, headache, abdominal contamination of foods,
& products made cramps, diarrhea, & ensure thorough
with them sometimes vomiting cooking of foods,
prompt & proper
refrigeration, practice
good personal hygiene

Staphylococcus Human skin, nose, Diarrhea, vomiting, Avoid contamination


aureus throat, infected nausea, abdominal from hands, exclude
sores, & in cramps, & physical food handlers with skin
animals exhaustion infections from
preparation, ensure
proper refrigeration,
rapid cooling of
prepared food
Ten Least Wanted
Foodborne Pathogens
Causative Agent Source of Illness Symptoms Prevention Methods

Shigella sp. Fecally Abdominal pain, Avoid cross-


contaminated food cramps, diarrhea, contamination of foods,
or water fever, vomiting, & avoid fecal
blood, pus, or mucus contamination by food
in stool handlers, practice good
personal hygiene, use
sanitary food & water
sources, ensure control
of flies, cool food rapidly

Toxoplasma gondii Animal feces, Enlarged lymph Avoid raw or


mammals, birds nodes in head & undercooked meat,
neck, severe thoroughly cook meats,
headache, severe practice good personal
muscle pain, rash hygiene
Ten Least Wanted
Foodborne Pathogens
Causative Agent Source of Illness Symptoms Prevention Methods

Vibrio vulnificus Oysters & other Diarrhea, abdominal Avoid raw or


shellfish cramps, nausea, undercooked seafood,
vomiting, headache, avoid cross-
chills, fever, contamination
blistering skin lesions

Yersinia Domestic pigs, Fever, severe Avoid cross-


enterocolitica soil, water, wild abdominal pain, contamination,
animals, rodents possible diarrhea, thoroughly cook foods,
headache, sore sanitize food contact
throat, vomiting surface, proper storage
procedures, use
sanitary water supplies
Factors Contributing to Outbreaks of Foodborne Illness in
Foodservice Establishments

Improper Cooling
Advance Preparation
0.2
0.1
Infected Person
0.5
1 0.1 Inadequate Reheating
2.5 2 2
3.5
2.5 Improper Hot Storage
30
5 Contaminated Ingredient
9
Unsafe Source
Use of Leftovers
Cross-Contamination
Inadequate Cooking
Toxic Substances
11
17 Intentional Additives
13
Improper Thawing
Contaminated Water
Mistaken for Food
Improper Dishwashing
Factors Contributing to Foodborne Illness in
the Philippines (by rank, by % outbreak,
1988-1996)
• Improper food storage temperature
• Poor hygienic practices
• Inadequate cooking
• Use of dirty utensils and equipment
• Eating of expired and sewage-
contaminated food
Trends in Food-borne Disease
Outbreaks (FBDO) in the
Philippines (1995 – 2004)

• Meat-based dishes and products –


more significant causes of FBDO
• Spaghetti meat sauce – main
causative food vehicle

Source: Azanza, MPVA. (2005). Foodborne Diseases in the Philippines, 1995-2004.


Food disease outbreaks in the Philippines
(n=60, 1995-2004) classified by
incriminated food types
Food Type Percentage
(%)
Meat-based dishes and processed meat 31.67
products

Fish and other seafood dishes 20.00

Bakery and confectionery products 16.67

Toxin-containing or un-edible materials 13.33

Other dishes 10.00

Beverages 8.33

Source: Azanza, MPVA. (2005). Foodborne Diseases in the Philippines, 1995-2004.


Outbreak Location for Philippine Foodborne
Disease
(N=60, 1995-2004)
Percentage (%)
occurrence morbidity mortality
Home 43.33 18.17 96.00
Workplaces 20.00 38.61 4.00

Schools 15.00 24.60 0.00


Restaurant 11.67 7.67 0.00
Unknown 10.00 10.96 0.00

Source: Azanza, MPVA. (2005). Foodborne Diseases in the Philippines, 1995-2004.


Ranking of causative agents of foodborne poisoning in the
Philippines based on recorded morbidity cases (n=3313 out
of 60 outbreaks, 1995-2004)
Type of Food Poisoning Percentage
Microbiological Chemical/ toxin %
Salmonella spp. 29.73
Staphylococcal enterotoxin 23.15
14.49*
V. parahemolyticus 10.14
paralytic shellfish toxin 4.35
V. cholerae 4.35
Histamine 3.74
Aeromonas spp. 2.20
E. coli 2.11
Psylocibin/ Psilocin 1.42
*Unclassified
Source: Azanza, MPVA. (2005). Foodborne Diseases in the Philippines, 1995-2004.
Ranking of causative agents of foodborne poisoning in the
Philippines based on recorded morbidity cases (n=3313 out
of 60 outbreaks, 1995-2004) continued…
Type of Food Poisoning Percentage
Microbiological Chemical/ toxin %
Cigua toxin 1.15
Jatropha curcas toxin 0.75
Nitrite 0.75
Amatoxin 0.51
Tetradotoxin 0.63
Chlorphyllum molybdites toxin 0.21
Arsenic 0.15
Methanol 0.15
Dioscorine 0.12
B. cereus toxin 0.09
Kerosene 0.03
Source: Azanza, MPVA. (2005). Foodborne Diseases in the Philippines, 1995-2004.
Ranking of causative agents of foodborne poisoning in the
Philippines based on recorded mortality cases (n=25 cases out
of 60 outbreaks, 1995-2004)

Causative Agent Percentage (%)


Paralytic shellfish toxin 34.62
Tetradotoxin 19.23
Methanol 19.23
Dioscorine 7.69
Arsenic 7.69
Unclassified 7.69
Nitrite 3.85

Source: Azanza, MPVA. (2005). Foodborne Diseases in the Philippines, 1995-2004.


2005 Food-borne disease outbreaks
Outbreak Carrier Causal agent Morbidit Mortaliti
area ies es
Mabini, Bohol Cassava Carbamate 76 27
Concepcion, Spaghetti Staphylococcus 89 0
Tarlac
Manaoag, Spaghetti - 85 0
Pangasinan
Danao, Cebu Lechon - 27 0
San Jose, Bantoli - 15 0
Camarines Sur

Isla Verde, Steak - 7 0


Batangas
Pasay City Adobong - 7 0
kangkong
Source: Azanza, MPVA. (2005). Foodborne Diseases in the Philippines, 1995-2004.
Formula of
Foodborne Illness

http://www.colostate.edu/orgs/safefood/safetyworks/handbook.pdf
Generally, foodborne illnesses
are due to…
• Time-temperature abuse
• Poor personal hygiene
• Cross-contamination
Time-Temperature Abuse
• Situation at which food has been allowed to
remain for too long at temperatures
favorable for growth of microorganisms
• Failing to hold or store foods at required
temperatures
• Failing to cook or reheat food to
temperatures that kill microorganisms
• Failing to cool foods properly
• Preparing food a day or more ahead
Cross-Contamination
• Occurs when
microorganisms
are transferred
from one surface
or food to another