Preparing and Serving Safe Food

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10 WHO Golden Rules for Safe Food Preparation
1. Choose foods processed for safety 2. Cook food thoroughly

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10 WHO Golden Rules for Safe Food Preparation
3. Eat cooked foods immediatel y 4. Store cooked foods carefully
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10 WHO Golden Rules for Safe Food Preparation
5. Reheat cooked foods thoroughly 6. Avoid contact between raw foods and cooked

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10 WHO Golden Rules for Safe Food Preparation
7. Wash hands repeatedly 8. Keep all kitchen surfaces meticulously clean

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10 WHO Golden Rules for Safe Food Preparation
9. Protect foods from insects, rodents and other animals 10.Use safe water

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Safe Ways to Thaw Food

In a refrigerator, at ≤41°F (5°C)

Under running water, at ≤70°F (21°C)

In a microwave oven followed by immediate cooking

As part of the cooking process

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Preparing Meat, Fish & Poultry When preparing raw meat, fish,
and poultry, foodhandlers should:
Wash their hands properly Use clean and sanitized work areas, equipment, and utensils Remove only as much product from storage as necessary Store prepared meat, or cook it as quickly as possible

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Preparing Protein Salads
When preparing salads containing potentially hazardous ingredients:
Only use meat and poultry that was safely handled prior to use Do not use ingredients past their use-by dates Refrigerate ingredients until ready for use Chill utensils prior to using them Prepare the salads in small batches
Photo courtesy of Tony Soluri and Charlie Trotter

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Preparing Egg & Egg Mixtures eggs and When preparing
egg mixtures:
Handle pooled eggs (if allowed) with special care (5°C) Clean and sanitize equipment and utensils used to prepare eggs Use pasteurized shell eggs or egg products when:
Photo courtesy of Tony Soluri and Charlie Trotter

Serving high-risk populations Preparing dishes requiring little or no cooking (ex. Mayonnaise)
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Preparing Batter & Breading food: When battering
Consider making batter with pasteurized eggs Prepare batter in small batches Throw out unused batter after each shift

When breading food:
Refrigerate it as quickly as possible if it will be used later (5oC) Throw out unused breading after each shift
Photo courtesy of Tony Soluri and Charlie Trotter

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Preparing Fruit & Vegetables When preparing produce:
Do not allow contact with surfaces exposed to raw meat or poultry Wash it thoroughly before cutting, cooking, or combining with other ingredients Do not add sulfites
Photo courtesy of Tony Soluri and Charlie Trotter

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Ice
When scooping ice from an ice machine:
Use a sanitized container and scoop Store scoops outside of the ice machine in a sanitary location Do not use a glass as a scoop Do not let hands come in contact with ice
Photo courtesy of Tony Soluri and Charlie Trotter

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Cooking Food
When cooking potentially hazardous food, the internal portion must:
Reach the required minimum internal temperature Hold that temperature for a specific amount of time

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Minimum Internal Temperature
Food Poultry, stuffing, stuffed meats, stuffed pasta, casseroles, field-dressed game Pork, ham, bacon Ground meat, flaked fish, sausage Roasted pork Temperature 165ºF (74ºC), 15 sec 145ºF (63ºC), 15 sec 155ºF (69ºC), 15 sec 145ºF (63ºC), 3 min

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Minimum Internal Temperature
Food Beef steak Fish Egg Perishable food cooked in the microwave Temperature 145ºF (63ºC), 15 sec 145ºF (63ºC), 15 sec 145ºF (63ºC), 15 sec 165ºF (74ºC), 2 min

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Cooling Food Safely

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Holding of Foods

Minimize time spent in danger zone Holding:

hot foods at 140ºF or higher cold foods at 41ºF (5ºC) or lower

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Reheating

Reheating: 165ºF (74ºC) for 15s within 2h

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Which of the following items meet the requirements for holding food without temperature control?
. Potato salad is taken out of refrigeration at 10:00 A.M. and is labeled “Discard at 3:00 P.M.” . Properly cooked scrambled eggs are placed in a hot-holding unit at 9:00 A.M., held at 120°F (49°C), and discarded at 11:00 A.M. as the label indicated. . Sliced ham held at 50°F (10°C) the previous night, is held at room temperature for four hours and then is discarded as the 21 9-6 label indicated.

Handling Food, Glassware, Dishes, and Utensils

RIGHT

WRONG

RIGHT

WRONG

RIGHT

WRONG

RIGHT

WRONG

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Handling Food, Glassware, Dishes, and Utensils
continued

RIGHT

WRONG

RIGHT

WRONG

RIGHT

WRONG

RIGHT

WRONG

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Re-Serving Food

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Re-serve only unopened, pre-packaged foods Never re-serve plate garnishes Do not re-serve bread baskets Don’t combine leftovers with fresh food Linens used to line bread baskets must be changed each time a customer is served

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Self-Service Areas
To keep food safe on food bars and buffets:
Install sneeze guards Separate raw meat, fish, and poultry from cooked and ready-to-eat food Hand out fresh plates to customers Label all food items Maintain proper temperatures Practice FIFO

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Off-Site Service

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Use rigid, insulated food containers capable of maintaining temps. above 140ºF (60ºC) or below 41ºF (5ºC)] Clean the inside of delivery vehicles regularly Practice good personal hygiene Check internal food temperatures regularly Label foods with instructions for proper storage, shelf-life & reheating Provide food safety guidelines for consumers
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Catering

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Make sure there is safe drinking water & adequate power on the site Deliver raw meats frozen & wrapped on ice Serve cold foods in containers on ice Keep raw & RTE food separate Use only single-use items Provide instructions for proper storage, shelflife & reheating
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Vending Machine
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Keep foods at the right temperature Machines must have automatic cutoff controls Check product shelf-life daily Dispense potentially hazardous foods in their original containers

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“Key recommendations” for food safety
The 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines give five “Key Recommendations” for food safety.

Source: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/recommendations.htm
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Recommendation 1: CLEAN
Clean hands, food-contact surfaces, fruits and vegetables.
Do NOT wash or rinse meat and poultry as this could spread bacteria to other foods.
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Wash your hands!

Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness.
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Clean during food preparation

Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter tops in hot soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next.

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Avoid spreading bacteria

Use paper towels or clean cloths to wipe up kitchen surfaces or spills. Wash cloths often in the hot cycle of your washing machine and dry in a hot dryer.

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Dirty dishcloths spread bacteria

Wet or damp dishcloths are ideal environments for bacterial growth. Have a good supply of dishcloths to avoid reusing them before laundry day.
There are more germs in the average kitchen than the bathroom. Sponges and dishcloths are worst offenders.
~ research by Dr. Charles Gerba
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Recommendation 2: SEPARATE
Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing foods.

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Use different cutting boards

Use one cutting board for fresh produce and a separate one for raw meat, poultry and seafood.

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When groovy isn’t a good thing

Replace cutting boards if they become excessively worn or develop hard-to-clean grooves.

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Use clean plates
NEVER serve foods on a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry or seafood unless the plate has first been washed in hot, soapy water.

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Recommendation 3: COOK

Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.

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Thermy temperature recommendations
T M

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service 40 http://www.fsis.usda.gov/education/thermy

Chicken and turkey

Thermy™ says: Cook chicken and turkey (whole birds, legs, thighs & wings) to 180 degrees F.
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Ham

Thermy™ says: A "cook before eating" ham should reach 160 degrees F. To reheat a fully-cooked ham, heat it to 140 degrees F.

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Ground meats

Thermy™ says: Cook hamburger, ground beef and other ground meats to 160 degrees F and ground poultry to 165 degrees F.

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Leftovers

Thermy™ says: Reheat leftovers until a temperature of 165 degrees F is reached throughout the product.
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Egg dishes

Thermy™ says: Cook egg dishes such as quiche to 160 degrees F.
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Beef, lamb & veal steaks

Thermy™ says: Cook beef, lamb and veal steaks and roasts to 160 degrees F for medium doneness (145 degrees F for medium rare). 46

Turkey

Thermy™ says: A turkey is done when the temperature in the inner thigh reaches 180 degrees F.
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The ONLY way to know food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature is to use a food thermometer!

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Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature?

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service 50 http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm

This IS a safely cooked hamburger, cooked to an internal temperature of 160 degrees F, even though it's pink inside.

This is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it’s undercooked. Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135 degrees F.

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service 51 http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm

1 out of 4 hamburgers turns brown before it has been cooked to a safe internal temperature

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service 52 http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm

Types of food thermometers

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DIGITAL instant-read
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Reads in 10 seconds Place at least ½ inch deep (or as directed by manufacturer) Gives fast reading Can measure temperature in thin and thick foods Not designed to remain in food while it's cooking Check internal temperature of food near the end of cooking time Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions Available in "kitchen" stores

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp 54

DIAL instant-read
        

Reads in 15-20 seconds Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups Temperature is averaged along probe, from tip to 2-3 inches up the stem Cannot measure thin foods unless inserted sideways Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking Use to check the internal temperature of a food at the end of cooking time Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions Readily available in stores

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp 55

Dial oven-safe
     

Reads in 1-2 minutes Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups Not appropriate for thin foods Can remain in food while it's cooking Heat conduction of metal stem can cause false high reading Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp 56

Oven probe with cord
Can be used in most foods Can also be used outside the oven Designed to remain in the food while it is cooking in oven or in covered pot Base unit sits on stovetop or counter Cannot be calibrated

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Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp 57

Disposable temperature indicators (Single-use)
     

Reads in 5 -10 seconds Place approximately ½ inch deep (follow manufacturer's directions) Designed to be used only once Designed for specific temperature ranges Should only be used with food for which they are intended Temperature-sensitive material changes color when the desired temperature is reached

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp 58

Thermometer-fork combination
       

Reads in 2-10 seconds Place at least ¼ inch deep in thickest part of food Can be used in most foods Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking Sensor in tine of fork must be fully inserted Check internal temperature of food near end of cooking time Cannot be calibrated Convenient for grilling

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp 59

Placing a food thermometer
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Place in the thickest part of food. Do NOT touch bone, fat, or gristle. Begin checking temperature toward the end of cooking, but before the food is expected to be "done." For irregularly shaped food – such as with a beef roast – check the temperature in several places. Clean thermometer with hot soapy water before and after each use!

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Using a thermometer in thinner foods
For thinner foods such as meat patties, pork chops and chicken breasts, a DIGITAL instant-read food thermometer should be used if possible – as it doesn’t have to be inserted as far as a DIAL instant-read thermometer. Disposable temperature indicators are another option.
For really thin foods, it may be necessary to insert a digital thermometer or disposable temperature indicator at an angle.
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Using a thermometer in thinner foods
For an "instant-read" DIAL food thermometer, insert the probe in the side of the food so the entire sensing area (usually 2-3 inches) is positioned through the center of the food.

When grilling or frying, to avoid burning fingers, it may be helpful to remove the food from the heat source before inserting the thermometer.
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Recommendation 4: CHILL
Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly and defrost foods properly.

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The TWO-hour rule
Refrigerate perishable foods so TOTAL time at room temperature is less than TWO hours or only ONE hour when temperature is above 90 degrees F. Perishable foods include: • Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu • Dairy products • Pasta, rice, cooked vegetables • Fresh, peeled/cut fruits and vegetables
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DANGER ZONE
Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40 and 140 degrees F.

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How to be cool – part 1

Cool food in shallow containers. Limit depth of food to 2 inches or less. Place very hot foods on a rack at room temperature for about 20 minutes before refrigeration.
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How to be cool – part 2
It’s OK to refrigerate foods while they’re still warm. Leave container cover slightly cracked until the food has cooled.

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Recommended refrigerator & freezer temperatures

Set refrigerator at 40 degrees F or below. Set freezer at 0 degrees F.

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Place an appliance thermometer in your refrigerator AND freezer

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Monitor refrigerator & freezer temperatures

Place thermometer in the front of refrigerator/freezer in an easy-to-read location. Check temperature regularly – at least once a week.
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The THAW LAW

Plan ahead to defrost foods. The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator.

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When to leave your leftovers

Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days. If in doubt, toss it out!

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Recommendation 5: AVOID...

Raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk products Raw or partially cooked eggs and foods containing raw eggs Raw and undercooked meat and poultry Unpasteurized juices Raw sprouts
Most at risk are infants, young children, pregnant women, older adults and the immunocompromised.
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Should you keep or toss …

Pizza left on the counter overnight?

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Toss it out!

Even if you reheat pizza left on the counter overnight, some bacteria can form a heat resistant toxin that cooking won’t destroy.

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Should you keep or toss …

Hamburger thawed on the kitchen counter?

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Toss it out!

As with pizza left out more than TWO hours, bacteria may have formed heatresistant toxins. The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator. Thaw packages of meat, poultry and seafood on a plate on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator to prevent their juices from dripping on other foods.

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Should you keep or toss …

Perishable food left out from the noon meal until the evening meal?

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Toss it out!

Perishable foods – such as meats, gravy and cooked vegetables – should be refrigerated within TWO hours.

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Should you keep or toss …

Pumpkin pie stored at room temperature overnight?

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Toss it out!

Foods with eggs, milk, and a high moisture content – such as pumpkin pie – must be refrigerated. Avoid keeping pumpkin pie at room temperature more than TWO hours, including time after baking AND before being served. Some commercial pumpkin pies – purchased at room temperature – must later be refrigerated. Check label for storage requirements and don’t buy them if label directions are unclear or missing.
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Should you keep or toss …

Cut/peeled fruits and vegetables at room temperature for over TWO hours?

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Toss it out!

Once you have cut through the protective skin of fruits and vegetables, bacteria can enter. Refrigerate cut or peeled fruits and vegetables within TWO hours.

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Should you keep or toss …

Leftovers in the refrigerator for over a week?

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Toss it out!

Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days. You can’t always see or smell if a food is unsafe. It may be unsafe to taste a food.

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Should you keep or toss …

A FULL pot of chicken soup stored in the refrigerator while still hot?

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…(can you guess?)
How long would it take an 8-inch stock pot of steaming chicken soup to cool to a safe temperature in your refrigerator?

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Would you believe … 24 hours!

TOSS IT OUT!
Remember: Transfer hot foods to shallow containers to speed cooling.

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Should you keep or toss …

A turkey in your freezer for five years?

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You decide!
Food kept frozen at 0 degrees F is still safe to eat. However, it may not taste as good. To assure best flavor, eat a frozen turkey within a year.

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Remember:

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Reducing your risk

Safely handling fresh fruits and vegetables is easy. Following recommendations does not require any special equipment or training. It’s important to follow the recommendations every time you handle fresh fruits and vegetables.

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Produce graphic illustrating:  Check
    

Clean Cook Separate Chill Throw away

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CHECK

Check to be sure that the fresh fruits and vegetables you buy are not bruised or damaged. Check that fresh cut fruits and vegetables like packaged salads and precut melons are refrigerated at the store before buying. Do not buy fresh cut items that are not refrigerated.

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Wash hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds before and after handling fresh fruits and vegetables. Clean all surfaces and utensils with hot water and soap, including cutting boards, counter tops, peelers and knives that will touch fresh fruits or vegetables before and after food preparation.

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Rinse fresh fruits and vegetables under running tap water, including those with skins and rinds that are not eaten. Packaged fruits and vegetables labeled “ready-to-eat”, “washed” or “triple washed” need not be washed. Rub firm-skin fruits and vegetables under running tap water or scrub with a clean vegetable brush while rinsing with running tap water.

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Dry fruits and vegetables with a clean cloth towel or paper towel. Never use detergent or bleach to wash fresh fruits or vegetables. These products are not intended for consumption.

 

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When shopping, be sure fresh fruits and vegetables are separated from household chemicals, and raw foods such as meat, poultry, and seafood in your cart and in bags at checkout. Keep fresh fruits and vegetables separate from raw meat, poultry, or seafood in your refrigerator.

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Separate fresh fruits and vegetables from raw meat, poultry and seafood. Do not use the same cutting board without cleaning with hot water and soap before and after preparing fresh fruits and vegetables.

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Cook or throw away fruits or vegetables that have touched raw meat, poultry, seafood or their juices.

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Refrigerate all cut, peeled or cooked fresh fruits and vegetables within two hours.

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THROW AWAY

Throw away fresh fruits and vegetables that have not been refrigerated within two hours of cutting, peeling, or cooking. Remove and throw away bruised or damaged portions of fruits and vegetables when preparing to cook them or before eating them raw.  Throw away any fruit or vegetable that will not be cooked if it has touched raw meat, poultry or seafood. If in doubt, throw it out!

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It’s as easy as A, B, C!
Check Clean Cook Chill Separate Throw Away
4 C’s + S +T = Proper Produce Handling
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