HACCP | Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Points | Verification And Validation

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP

)

HACCP
• is a quality assurance system which identifies, evaluates, and controls/reduces food hazards. • Food safety hazards are chemical, biological, or physical agents in food that can affect consumers' health adversely.

HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS
Food safety management system designed to control hazards at points critical to food safety An evaluation system to identify, monitor, and control contamination risks in foodservice establishments

HACCP
can only be applied in food processing plants where Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is already in place.

HACCP

Definitions:
Contamination: presence or introduction of a hazard Control measures: actions required to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level Control point: a step in the process at which control may be applied, but a loss of control would not result in an unacceptable Corrective action: action to be taken when a critical limit is breached

HACCP

Definitions:
Critical control point: a step in the process at which control can be applied & is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level Critical limit: value of a monitored action that separates the acceptable from the unacceptable Deviation: failure to meet a critical limit Flow diagram: a systematic representation of the sequence of steps or operations involved with a particular food item or process, usually from receipt of raw materials to consumer

HACCP

Definitions:
HACCP team: a group of people with appropriate expertise who develop & implement a HACCP system Hazard: a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause harm to the consumer Hazard analysis: process of collecting & evaluating information on hazards & conditions leading to their presence to decide which are significant for food safety & therefore should be addressed in the HACCP plan

HACCP

Definitions:
Monitoring: planned observations & measurements of control parameters to confirm that the process is under control & that critical limits are not exceeded Risk: probability that (a) condition/s will lead to a hazard Severity: seriousness of the consequences of the results of a hazard Target level: predetermined value for the control measure, which will eliminate or control the hazard at a control point

HACCP

Definitions:
Tolerance: specified degree of latitude for a control measure, which if exceeded, requires immediate corrective action Validation: obtaining evidence that elements of the HACCP plan are effective, especially the critical control points & critical limits Verification: application of methods, procedures & tests, & other evaluations, in addition to the monitoring, to determine compliance with the HACCP plan

HACCP

The benefits of having a HACCP system:
Compliance with legislation & third party auditors Proactive & cost-effective Controls are easy to monitor & are carried out on the premises Complementary to quality management systems Reduces business risk Brand protection Facilitates international trade

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP Task No. 1: Assemble & train the HACCP Team
Must be proportionate to the size, risk & complexity of the business Multidisciplinary Most members involved with daily food production operations Knowledgeable of food product and production operations Outside expert with advance technical knowhow

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP Task No. 2: Describe the product.
Äa detailed and complete description of the product  Product Name  Important Product Characteristics  Shelf-life, at what condition  Distribution  Labeling Instructions  List of Raw Materials and Ingredients

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP Task No. 2: Describe the product.
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
Product Name: Frozen raw beef patties Important characteristics: Product meeting company & regulatory specifications for sensory, physicochemical & microbiological quality Distribution: Refrigerated vehicles Labeling instructions: Store below 5ºC; Use-by-date Shelf-life: 3 days at 5ºC Raw materials: beef cuts/trimmings; non-meat ingredients (salt, spices) Packaging: Shrink wrap Brief process description: formed, ground beef, repackaged and stored until used

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP Task No. 3: Identify intended use and consumer of the product.
Intended use: describes how the product is normally used by end-users Intended consumers: refers to the expected group of individuals who will consume the food product

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP Task No. 4: Develop the process flow diagram.. Develop Process Flow
refers to sequential steps in food production simple and clear represented by a block/line-type flow diagram includes only pertinent technical parameters (time, temp) per step

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP Task No. 4: Develop the process flow diagram..

Source: The Foundation HACCP Handbook

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP Task No. 5: Verify flow diagram..
 Inspection of the operation on-site to check the accuracy and completeness of the process flow diagram  Revision of the draft flow diagram and plant schematic

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Principle 1: Conduct a Hazard Analysis Involves: Identifying hazards that may affect the process; Identifying the steps at which the hazards are likely to occur; Deciding which hazards are significant; and Determining measures necessary to control the hazards

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Hazard Analysis…

Hazard
- A biological, chemical or physical agent that would likely cause illness or injury in the absence of control

Most physical & chemical hazards affecting catering & retailing will be removed by effective prerequisite programs.

Hazard Analysis… Example…

Source: The Foundation HACCP Handbook

HACCP

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Hazard Analysis…

Control Measures
Actions taken to prevent, eliminate or reduce hazards to an acceptable level

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Principle 2: Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs)

Critical Control Point
A step or procedure at which some control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level

HACCP

Critical Control Point Decision Tree

A sequence of questions to determine whether a control point is a CCP

CODEX Decision Tree

Source: The Foundation HACCP Handbook

Critical Control Points

HACCP

Source: The Foundation HACCP Handbook

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Principle 3: Establish Critical Limits

Represents boundaries used to evaluate whether an operation is producing safe products

HACCP Sources of Information on Critical limits Research Data Scientific Publication Regulatory requirements and guidelines Experts Experimental Studies

Critical Limits

Source: The Foundation HACCP Handbook

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Principle 3: Establish Critical Limits

The difference between a critical limit and a target level is known as a tolerance.

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Principle 4: Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP

Monitoring
planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP is under control and to produce as accurate record for future use in verification

HACCP

Purposes of Monitoring
­ To track system operations ­ To determine when there is deviation from a critical limit ­ To establish records for use in verifications

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Principle 4: Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP Should state: • WHAT the critical limits & target levels are; • HOW the monitoring system should be undertaken; • WHERE the monitoring should be undertaken; • WHEN the monitoring should be undertaken; and • WHO is responsible for monitoring

Methods of Monitoring

HACCP

Source: The Foundation HACCP Handbook

Monitoring…

Source: The Foundation HACCP Handbook

The Implementation of HACCP
Principle 5: Establish Corrective Action

Source: The Foundation HACCP Handbook

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Principle 5: Establish Corrective Action

Source: The Foundation HACCP Handbook

Corrective Actions…

HACCP

Source: The Foundation HACCP Handbook

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Principle 6: Establish Record Keeping and Documentation

involves development and documentation of all procedures and records of HACCP principles and their application

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Principle 6: Establish Record Keeping and Documentation Documentation includes:
• HACCP team & responsibilities; • Hazard analysis including product or process description; • Critical control point determination & flow diagram; • Critical limit determination; • HACCP control charts; • Verification details; and • Prerequisite programs

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Principle 6: Establish Record Keeping and Documentation Records include:
• CCP monitoring activities; • Deviations & corrective actions; • Modifications to the HACCP system; • Audit reports; • Customer complaints; • Calibration of instruments; and • Prerequisite programs monitoring activities.

HACCP

The Implementation of HACCP
Principle 7: Establish Verification Procedures Involves the application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluation, in addition to monitoring to determine if the HACCP system is working correctly

HACCP
Verification Procedures

Validation Activities
Scientific and technical review of the developed HACCP plan to determine its adequacy in effectively controlling the occurrence of hazards

Verification activities
Check if the developed HACCP System is functioning as intended

HACCP

Purposes of Verification
To ensure that : ­flow diagram remains valid; ­hazards are being controlled ­monitoring is satisfactory; and ­When necessary, appropriate corrective action has been or will be taken

When to conduct a review?

HACCP

Source: The Foundation HACCP Handbook

HACCP

Reasons for failure of HACCP:
Poor hygiene practices; Lack of management commitment; Lack of knowledge/training; Lack of resources; System to complex & not understood; Poor, inaccurate records; Too much paperwork; Externally imposed system; System is only available in the manager’s office; Wrongly identified critical control points; Unrealistic critical limits

Logic Sequence for the Application of HACCP Assemble HACCP Team Describe product Identify intended use

Construct flow diagram On-site confirmation of flow diagram
List all potential hazards Conduct a Hazard Analysis Establish Critical Limits for each CCP

Determine CCPs Establish Critical Limits fro each CCP

Logic Sequence for the Application of HACCP...

Establish a monitoring system for each CCP

Establish corrective actions

Establish verification procedures

Establish documentation and record keeping

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