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Managing Human Resources

Week 2
Managing diversity

Current employment experiences of

socially defined minority groups
Different approaches to equalities

November 20,

Current employment experiences of socially

defined minority groups

Racial and ethnic group
Disabled people
Older people
Lesbian, gay and bisexual people

November 20,

In April to June 2013 around 67% of women aged 16
to 64 were in work, an increase from 53% in 1971.
For men the percentage fell to 76% in 2013 from 92%
in 1971.
This increase is mainly due to the replacement of fulltime jobs with part-time jobs;
Most women remain in three occupational groups:
Clerical and secretarial (74%)
Personal and protective services (e.g. catering, caring, cleaning
Selling occupations (63%)

November 20,

Women - Pay differentials

2014: The gender pay gap in the UK stands at
19.7 per cent
2000: Womens full-time hourly pay was 82% of
full-time male earnings
Men earn 45 per cent more than women at the
age of 49 . Source: ONS (Office for National
Analysis of the ONS figures shows that the
average UK hourly wage for men is 12.64, and
for women 10.38 a gap of 21 per cent.

November 20,

Racial and ethnic groups

The latest 13.3 per cent unemployment
rate among non-whites is still almost
double the figure recorded for whites.

November 20,

Racial and ethnic groups

Several ethnic groups are known to have a high
proportion of minimum-wage workers,
particularly Bangladeshis, Pakistanis and
migrant workers (Low Pay Commission, 2013).
Furthermore, income-based measures of
poverty reveal significantly higher poverty rates
for Bangladeshis, Pakistanis and blacks
(including black Africans and black Caribbeans)

November 20,

Racial and ethnic groups

In the high-visibility worlds of the establishment,
entertainment and sport, there are signs of progress:
there are more than four times as many black and ethnic
minority MPs in Parliament as there were in 1993. A
Muslim woman takes her seat at the cabinet table every
Tuesday. An African-born man is in charge of a FTSE
100 company. Black and Asian actors regularly take
leading roles in prime-time TV series.
The population has changed since 1993: then ethnic
minorities accounted for 5.1 per cent in England and
Wales; the latest figure is 8.7 per cent. 24th Sept 2014
Source: The Independent 24th Sept 2014
November 20,

Racial and ethnic groups

However, black men and women in their
early twenties are twice as likely to be not
in employment, education or training as
white people
There is no shortage of ethnic minority
undergraduates: nearly one in five in
2010, an increase of almost a third since
November 20,

Racial and ethnic groups

Discriminatory workplace practices have
been reported to contribute to the
self-deselection of ethnic minority women
from the jobs market
(Yaojun Li, cited in All Party Parliamentary
Group on Race and Community, 2012).

November 20,

According to the 2011 census, one in nine
(10.9%) of the employed workforce (in
England and Wales) is a 'Manager, director or
senior official
Typical Manager:
manager is just under 46, is more male than
female, and predominately white, but over the
last eight years has got slightly older, more
female, less white and a bit better qualified!
November 20,

The non-manager workforce splits almost
exactly 50:50 male and female (50.1% male,
49.9% female);
by comparison, 65.1% of managers are male
and 34.9% are female.
The proportion of nonwhite managers has
increased from 4.3% in 2004 to 7.4% in 2012
This represents a major challenge to employers,
in reviewing their recruitment, promotion and
career development strategies
November 20,

Disabled People

There are about 10 million disabled people in Great Britain who are
covered by the Disability Discrimination Act. This represents around
18% of the population.
There are over 6.9 million disabled people who are of working age,
representing nearly one in five people of working age in Great
Many people think that people are usually disabled from childhood.
In fact, most people who have a disability or a health condition
develop it in later life.
78% of disabled people acquire their impairment aged 16 or older.
2% of the UK working age populations becomes disabled every
Only about half of individuals with disabilities of working age are in

November 20,

Disabled People
Research from the HSE has found that
disabled employees are:
As productive as their colleagues
Have less time off sick
Stay longer in their jobs
Have fewer work accidents

November 20,

Older Workers
The working population is getting older employers will have more older workers to
recruit and manage and fewer younger workers.
There are currently 20 million people aged 50
and over in the UK. By 2030 this figure is
expected to reach 27 million an increase of 37
per cent.
people are working longer increased life
expectancy combined with shortfalls in pension
provision mean employees are retiring later
November 20,

Older people
A survey of 500 British residents between 50 and 69
years of age found that 85% believed that employers
discriminate against older workers;
- DfEE (1999)

Discriminations are likely to occur in relation to

recruitment, selecting staff for promotion,
redundancy, training and deciding the age of
-Torrington (2002)

November 20,

Lesbian, gay and bisexual people

Difficult to describe
44 % of the 440 gay, lesbian and bisexual
respondents mentioned they had experienced
discrimination due to their sexuality
-Trades Union Congress (1999)

November 20,

Different approaches to equality

Equal opportunities approach
Seeking to influence behaviour through legislation so that
discrimination is prevented

Management of diversity approach

Focusing on individuals rather than groups and encouraging the
improvement of opportunities for all individuals and not just those in
minority groups
-Torrington (2002)

November 20,

Problems with equal opportunities approach

Assumption: equality of outcome will be achieved if fair
procedures are used and monitored
The approach alienated large sections of the workforce who felt
that there was no benefit for themselves
Equal opportunities results in the lowering of entry standards
The approach creates divisions in the workforce
Traditional equal opportunities strategies encourage a view that
women have a problem and need help.

-Torrington (2002)

November 20,

Problems with equal opportunities approach

In general,
The approach is regarded as simplistic;
Attempting to treat the symptoms rather than the
causes of unfair discrimination
-Torrington (2002)

November 20,

Management of diversity approach

Managing diversity is about the realisation of
the potential of all employeescertain group
based equal opportunities policies need to be
seriously questioned, in particular positive
action and targets
- Kandola and Fullertoon (1994)

November 20,

Management of diversity approach

The challenge of meeting the needs of a
culturally diverse workforce and of sensitising
workers and managers to differences
associated with gender, race, age and
nationality in an attempt to maximise the
potential productivity of all employees
- Ellis and Sonnenfield (1994)

November 20,

Management of diversity approach

Whereas the equal opportunities approach minimises

difference, the managing diversity approach treats differences
as a positive asset

It is based on the economic and business case for recognising

and valuing difference, rather than the moral case for treating
people equally.

Whereas equal opportunities are normally driven by the HR

function, managing diversity is regarded as the responsibility of
all managers.

November 20,

- Torrington (2002)

A process for managing diversity

Investigation of the current situation in terms of statistics, policy and
culture, etc.;
Setting visions of what the organisation would look like if it
successfully managed diversity;
Spreading the ownership;
Policy development;
Initiating a range of training schemes;
Managing the programme to sustain momentum
- Ross and Schneide (1992) in
Torrington (2002)

November 20,

Problems with the managing diversity approach

Too many complications (different interpretations);
Concentration on the individuals may reduce the
awareness of social-group-based disadvantage;
Managing diversity can be considered as
introspective as it deals with people already in the
organisation, rather than with getting people into the
-Torrington (2002)

November 20,

Equal opportunities approach vs. management of

diversity approach

Equal opportunities

Managing diversity


Reduce discrimination

Utilise employee potential

to maximum advantage

Case argued

Moral and ethical

Business case-improve


HR/personnel department

All managers

Focuses on




Dealing with different needs

of different groups


Benefits for

Opportunities improved for

disadvantaged groups,
primarily through setting

Opportunities improved
for all employees

Focus on



Changing systems and


Changing the culture


Equal opportunities approach vs. management of

diversity approach
Much of literature suggest that management of
diversity is a superior approach to equal
opportunities, and is not compatible with the equal
opportunities approach
- (Kandola et al., 1996)

Mutually supportive
-Ford (1996)

November 20,