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Protection

Prevention the occurrence of hazardous event.


Stop the event from continue.
Prevention of occurrence (happening) of harm, loss.
Stop escalation (becoming worse) of hazardous event.
Mitigate the damage.(make smaller)
Contain the event.(stop from becoming bigger).
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Ultimate goal

Protection

Prevent HARM to Humans, Environment, Equipments & Safe


Production by:
1. Design.
2. Inventory.
3. Containment.
4. Safe operation, commitment to Safe system of work.
5. Skilled & Trained workers.
6. Monitoring, evaluation, inspection.
7. Regular maintenance.
8. Control system.
9. Alarms from normal.
10. Emergency procedures & manual shutdown
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Ultimate goal

Protection

11. Emergency shutdown system.


12. Emergency Pressure Control Devices, (pressure relief valves, bursting
disks..etc)
13. Secondary containments, Dikes, Bunkers.
14. Local emergency control team.
15. Community emergency control.

Protection
Hamdi
K:\Unit 51 Emergency shut
down\vidoes on SIL and
More\layer of protection
39.06 alarms.
Good explanation 3rd video
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Typical Layers of protection


Design layer:

Designed with care for safety.


By competent people.
Previous experience.
According to standards.
According to law.
High goals for safety.
Use Hierarchy of control.
Less hazardous conditions.
Simplify.
Cost effective.

Typical Layers of protection


Design layer 1:

Designed with care for safety.


By competent people.
Previous experience.
According to standards.
According to law.
High goals for safety.
Use Hierarchy of control.
Less hazardous conditions.
Simplify.
Cost effective.
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Design layer 1:

Layers of protection

Good design

Bugatti veyron

Really ?

Top Gear production


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Design layer 1:

Layers of protection

Main concept of design:

Containment of hazardous substances in all conditions.(toxic, acid,


flammable, nuclear, pollutants )
Containment of unhazardous substances in hazardous states.(high
pressure , extreme temperature, pollution)
Neutralize hazardous conditions.(cool, acid, chemical,
Usage Of secondary containments.( dikes, walls, tanks, wells)
Release to atmosphere within limits of law.
No atmospheric release unless to prevent bigger harm.( last resort ,
special conditions, controlled).
Safety by inventory.
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Design layer 1 :

Layers of protection

Ultimate protection

Containment
Preventing the material to be released into the
open .

Design layer 1 :

Layers of protection
Failure of containment protection
LOSS of Containment

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Typical Layers of protection


Basic process control system (BPCS ) 2:

Controls process functions.


Controls process limits.
Easy to use and operate.
Operator can interfere.
Manual and automatic
functions.
Alarms for deviation.
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Typical Layers of protection


Alarms, Operator intervention 3:

Controls process limits.


Proper monitor of operation.
Easy to use and operate.
Operator stops and stars.
Manual and automatic
functions.
Alarms for deviation.
Response to alarms.
Remote or local.
Wire , wireless.
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Typical Layers of protection


Alarms, Operator intervention 3:

Alarm : Audio or Visual means to Alert operators remedial


action need to be taken.

Warns about conditions , deviations, critical, increased care , risky,


potential for accident, incident , accident.
Gives time for response. Control valves, thermal, flow of fluids, cooling,
mechanical delay, personal intervention, time for pneumatics,
emergency team.
For operator and controllershigh emergency , evacuations or
shutdown.
Inform operator when ESD takes over.
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Typical Layers of protection


Alarms, Operator intervention 3:

Alarm catch sensor failure.


Alarm must be recorded.
Prioritize response.
Resettable manually only.
Simplify response.
False alarms.
Not too many alarms.
Not sensitive to process function variations, startup, fuel feed, pressure up.
Clear indication of fault.
Clear indication of location of deviation.
Response trained operator.
Clear message of details.
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Typical Layers of protection


Alarms, Operator intervention 3:

Levels of alarms.
High

Hazard to people or equip., action required.

Medium

Loss of $$, close monitoring required.

Low

Investigate when time available.

Example : In a facility 17 alarms per hour for 3 hours , the operator responded only to
4 , only 8%.

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Typical Layers of protection


Safety Instrumented System(SIS) 4:
Independent of BPCS.
Stops processes and overrides operator control.
Automatic.
Shuts down valves, process, unit or plant.
Communicates with Fire/ Gas system.
Intervenes in unacceptable conditions.
Limited access, only authorized persons.
Common cause failure between SIS and BPCS must be
minimized.
Prevents hazardous conditions ( Containment loss, leaks,
breakage of equipment, high and low pressure, over flow,
run away reaction, temperature extremes).

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Typical Layers of protection


Safety Instrumented System(SIS) 4:

Safety Instrumented System(SIS), Also known as:

Emergency shutdown system(ESD).


Protective Instrumented System (PIS).
Instrument protection system (IPS).
Functional safety system (FSS).
Trip system
The main material for this course.
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Typical Layers of protection


Safety Instrumented System(SIS) 4:

Typical Action from ESD system:

Stop material flow /feed shutdown.


Prevent escalation of event.
Heat stoppage /cooling system on.
Energy ventilation control .
Isolate electric equipment /power down.
Isolate hazardous material/divert flow.
Shutdown part /unit/ plant/facility.
Depressurize / Blow down.
Close water tight and fire doors.
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Typical Layers of protection


Safety Instrumented System(SIS) 4:

Possible controls available:


Manual, from a main facility control point.
Manual activation from strategically located station
within facility.
Automatic from Fire & Gas detection system.
Automatic from process instrumentation set points.

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Typical Layers of protection


Safety Instrumented System(SIS) 4:

ESD Levels of shutdown:


ESD
Level

Action

Criticality

Non-ESD Process and Control Alarms

Routine

Equipment Protective System Shutdown

Slight

Equipment Shutdown

Major

Unit or Plant Shutdown

Severe

Total Facility Shutdown

Catastrophic

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Typical Layers of protection


Relief devices( Mitigation) 5 Active Protection:

Pressure relief valves.( gradual )


Pressure safety valves. ( remains open )
Bursting discs.( too much for PRV )
Neutralizing conditions.
Blowout panels.
Vacuum breakers ( return of fluid back )
Flam arresters.
Reactor kill system.
Flare system.
Atmospheric release of toxic substances.
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Typical Layers of protection


Pressure Relief Device (PRD).
Pressure Safety Valve (PSV).
Pressure Relief Valve (PRV).

Relief devices( Mitigation) 5:

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Typical Layers of protection


Rapture disks,discs

Relief devices( Mitigation) 5:

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Typical Layers of
protection

Physical protection, Passive protection 6:

Secondary containment
( spillage containments).
Fire walls.
Dikes.
Collection wells.
Controlled release ,
controlled area.
Hazardous condition but
under control.
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Typical Layers of
protection

Dikes.
Walls.
Secondary containments

Physical protection, Passive protection 6:

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Typical Layers of protection


Dikes.
Walls.
Secondary containments

Physical protection, Passive protection 6:

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Typical Layers of protection


Plant emergency response 7 :

Hazardous condition out of


control , but manageable by
plant emergency.
Local fire fighting ( small fire ).
Stoppable release of material.
Sufficient control equipment.
Trained teams.
Drills.
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Typical Layers of protection


Plant emergency response 7 :

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Typical Layers of protection


Community emergency response 8:

Hazardous condition out of


control , NOT manageable by
plant emergency.
Local fire fighting not
enough( large fire ).
Unstoppable release of material.
No sufficient control equipment.
No trained teams.
National or international hazard.
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Typical Layers of protection


Community emergency response 8:

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Typical Layers of protection


Protection layer failure 000 :

Disaster.
Multiple fatalities.
Wide spread contamination.
Business stoppage.
Community disruption.
Bankruptcy.

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Typical Layers of protection


Protection layer failure 000 :

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Failure of Layers of protection


INDUSRTIAL ACCIDENTS:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_industrial_disasters
March 28, 1979: Three Mile Island accident.
July 6, 1988: Piper Alpha disaster
April 26, 1986: Chernobyl disaster
June 1, 1974: Flixborough disaster
December 3, 1984: The Bhopal disaster in India is one of the largest industrial
disasters on record. A runaway reaction in a tank containing poisonous methyl
isocyanatecaused the pressure relief system to vent large amounts to the atmosphere at
a Union Carbide India Limited plant. Estimates of the death toll range from 4,000 to
20,000. The disaster caused the region's human and animal populations severe health
problems to the present.

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