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Instrumentation

Chapter Seven
Dr Nek Kamal Yeop Yunus
Faculty of business & economics
Sultan Idris Education University

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Instrumentation
Chapter Seven
Instructions: Circle the choice that indicates your opinion.
1. Teachers unions should be abolished.
Strongly
agree
(5)

Agree
(4)

Undecided
(3)

Disagree
(2)

Strongly
disagree
(1)

2. School administrators should be required by law to teach at least one class in a


public school classroom every year.
Strongly
agree
(5)

Agree
(4)

Undecided
(3)

Disagree
(2)

Strongly
disagree
(1)

3. Classroom teachers should be able to choose the administrators in their schools.


Strongly
agree
(5)

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Agree
(4)

Undecided
(3)

Disagree
(2)

Strongly
disagree
(1)

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What are Data?

Data refers to the information researchers


obtain on the subjects of their research.
Demographic information or scores from a
test are examples of data collected.
The researcher has to determine what kind of
data they need to collect.
The device the researcher uses to collect data
is called an instrument.

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Key Questions

The instruments and procedures used in collecting data


is called instrumentation.
Questions arise regarding the procedures and conditions
under which the instruments will be administered:

Where will the data be collected?


When will the data be collected?
How often are the data to be collected?
Who is to collect the data?

The most highly regarded types of instruments can


provide useless data if administered incorrectly, by
someone disliked by respondents, under noisy,
inhospitable conditions, or when subjects are
exhausted.

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Validity, Reliability, and Objectivity

Validity is an important consideration in the choice of an


instrument to be used in a research investigation

Reliability is another important consideration, since


researchers want consistent results from instrumentation

It should measure what it is supposed to measure


Researchers want instruments that will allow them to
make warranted conclusions about the characteristics of
the subjects they study

Consistency gives researchers confidence that the


results actually represent the achievement of the
individuals involved

Objectivity refers to the absence of subjective judgments

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This should be eliminated with regards to achievement


of the subjects, even if its difficult to do so

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Usability

An important consideration for any researcher in


choosing or designing an instrument is how easy the
instrument will actually be to use.
Some of the questions asked which assess usability
are:

How long will it take to administer?


Are the directions clear?
How easy is it to score?
Do equivalent forms exist?
Have any problems been reported by others who used it?

Getting satisfactory answers can save a researcher a lot


of time and energy.

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Ways to Classify Instruments

Who Provides the Information?

Themselves: Self-report data

Directly or indirectly: from the subjects of the


study

From informants (people who are


knowledgeable about the subjects and provide
this information)

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Types of Researcher-completed
Instruments

Rating scales
Interview schedules
Tally sheets
Flowcharts

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Performance
checklists
Anecdotal records
Time-and-motion
logs
Observation forms

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Excerpt from a Behavior Rating Scale for Teachers


(Figure 7.4)

Instructions: For each of the behaviors listed


below, circle the appropriate number, using
the following key: 5 = Excellent, 4 = Above
Average, 3 = Average, 2 = Below Average,
1 = Poor.
A. Explains course material clearly.
1

B. Establishes rapport with students.


1

C. Asks high-level questions.


1

D. Varies class activities.


1

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Excerpt from a Graphic Rating Scale

(Figure

7.5)

Instructions: Indicate the quality of the students participation


in the following class activities by placing an X anywhere along
each line.
AlwaysFrequently Occasionally

Seldom

Never

1. Listens to teachers instructions.

Always

Frequently

Occasionally

Seldom

Never

Seldom

Never

2. Listens to the opinions of other students.

Always

Frequently

Occasionally

3. Offers own opinions in class discussions.

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Example of a Product Rating Scale (Figure 7.6)

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Interview Schedule

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(Figure 7.7)

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Sample Observation Form


(Figure 7.8)

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Discussion Analysis Tally Sheet (Figure 7.9)

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Participation Flowchart

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(Figure 7.10)

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Performance Checklist Noting Student Actions (Figure 7.11)

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Time-and-Motion Log

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(Figure 7.12)

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Types of Subject-completed
Instruments

Questionnaires
Self-checklists
Attitude scales
Personality
inventories

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Achievement/aptitu
de tests
Performance tests
Projective devices
Sociometric
devices

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Example of a Self-Checklist

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(Figure 7.13)

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Example of Items from a Likert Scale


(Figure 7.14)

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Example of the Semantic Differential


(Figure 7.15)

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Pictorial Attitude Scale for Use with


Young Children (Figure 7.16)

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Sample Items from a Personality


Inventory (Figure 7.17)

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Sample Items from an Achievement Test


(Figure 7.18)

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Sample Item from an Aptitude Test


(Figure 7.19)

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Sample Items from an Intelligence Test


(Figure 7.20)

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Example from the Blum Sewing Machine Test (Figure


7.21)

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Sample Items from the Picture


Situation Inventory (Figure 7.22)

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Example of a Sociogram

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(Figure 7.23)

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Example of a Group Play

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(Figure 7.24)

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Item Formats

Questions used in a subject-completed instrument


can take many forms but are classified as either
selection or supply items.
Examples of selection items are:

True-false items
Matching items
Multiple choice items
Interpretive exercises

Examples of supply items are:

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Short answer items


Essay questions

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Unobtrusive Measures

Many instruments require the cooperation of the respondent


in one way or another.
An intrusion into an ongoing activity could be involved
which causes a form of negativity within the respondent.
To eliminate this, researchers use unobtrusive measures,
data collection procedure that involve no intrusion into the
naturally occurring course of events.
In most cases, no instrument is used, however, good record
keeping is necessary.
They are valuable as supplements to the use of interviews
and questionnaires, often providing a useful way to
corroborate what more traditional data sources reveal.

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Types of Scores

Quantitative data is reported in the form of scores


Scores are reported as either raw or derived scores

Raw score is the initial score obtained

Taken by itself, a raw score is difficult to interpret, since it has


little meaning

Derived score are scores that have been taken from raw scores
and standardized

They enable researchers to say how well the individual


performed compared to others taking the same test
Examples include:

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Age and Grade-level Equivalents


Percentile Ranks

Standard scores are mathematically derived scores having


comparable meaning on different instruments

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Examples of Raw Scores and


Percentile Ranks (Table 7.1)
Raw
Score
95
93
88
85
79
75
70
65
62
58
54
50

Cumulative
Frequency
1
1
2
3
1
4
6
2
1
1
2
1

Percentile
Frequency
25
24
23
21
18
17
13
7
5
4
3
1

Rank
100
96
92
84
72
68
52
28
20
16
12
4

N = 25
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Norm-Referenced vs. CriterionReferenced Instruments

All derived scores give meaning to individual scores by


comparing them to the scores of a group.
The group used to determine derived scores is called the
norm group and the instruments that provide such scores
are referred to as norm-referenced instruments.
An alternative to the use of achievement or performance
instruments is to use a criterion-referenced test.
This is based on a specific goal or target (criterion) for
each learner to achieve.
The difference between the two tests is that the criterion
referenced tests focus more directly on instruction.

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Measurement Scales

There are four types of measurement


scales

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Nominal Scales
Ordinal Scales
Interval Scales
Ratio Scales

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Four Types of Measurement Scales


(Figure 7.25)

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Four Types of Measurement Scales

(Table

7.2)

Measurement
Scale

Characteristics

Nominal

Groups and labels data only;


reports frequencies or percentages.

Ordinal

Ranks data; uses numbers only to


indicate ranking.

Interval

Assumes that equal differences between


scores really mean equal differences in
the variable used.

Ratio

All of the above, plus true zero point.

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Nominal Scales

Considered the simplest form of


measurement.
Researchers assign numbers to different
categories.
An example would be to assign a 1 to
men, a 2 to women.
The advantage to assigning numbers to the
categories is to facilitate computer analysis.
Involves groups and labels data only.

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A Nominal Scale of Measurement (Figure 7.26)

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Ordinal Scales

Involves the use of numbers to rank or order


scores from high to low.
An example would be the ranking of high to low
scores on an examination.
Differences in rankings would not necessarily be
the same with certain scores.
Ordinal scales indicate relative standing among
individuals.

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An Ordinal Scale: The Winner of a


Horse Race (Figure 7.27)

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Interval Scales

Involves the use of numbers to represent


equal intervals in different segments on a
continuum.
Very similar to an ordinal scale with the
exception of the equal intervals of points.
Assumes that equal differences between
scores really mean equal differences in the
variable measured.

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Ratio Scales

A ratio scale involves the use of numbers


to represent equal distances from a
known zero point.
A scale designed to measure height
would be a ratio scale since the zero
point represents the absence of height.
Ratio scales are almost never
encountered in Educational Research.

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Any questions?

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Thank You

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