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Motion Along a

Straight Line

Consider the motion of a car below.

, the car is at position x2 = 277m.

x x2 x1 277 m 19m 258m

The displacement of the car

is:

t t 2 t1 4 s 1s 3s

The time interval is:

The average velocity of the car

is:

x

vav

t

vav

x2 x1

vav

t 2 t1

258m

86m / s

3s

t (s)

x (m)

x (m)

x (m)

t (s)

with

constant

velocity

in

the

positive direction.

with

constant

velocity

in

the

negative direction.

x (m)

x (m)

The object is at

rest.

t (s)

t (s)

with

increasing

velocity

(accelerating).

t (s)

with

decreasing

velocity

(decelerating).

EXAMPLE 1:

(a)

speed

average

vave

(200m) (280m)

480m

4.4m / s

200m

280m

5m / s 4m / s

40 s 70s

vave

(200m) (280m)

80m

0.73m / s

200m

280m

5m / s 4m / s

40 s 70 s

Instantaneous Velocity

instantaneous velocity (v) is the velocity of a body at a specific

instant of time or at any specific point along the path.

instantaneous velocity (v) is the limit of average velocity of a

body as the time interval approaches zero.

x

v(t ) lim

t 0 t

instantaneous velocity (v) is the derivative of displacement

with respect to time.

dx

v(t )

dt

EXAMPLE

2:

(a)

x(0) (2.40)(0) 2 (0.120)(0) 3 0

x(10) (2.40)(10) 2 (0.120)(10) 3 120m

vave

x2 x1 120m 0

12m / s

t 2 t1

10m 0

EXAMPLE

2:

(b)

dx d

v(t )

( 2.40t 2 0.120t 3 ) (4.80m / s 2 )t (0.360m / s 3 )t 2

dt dt

v(0) ( 4.80)(0) (0.360)( 0) 2 0

v(5) (4.80)(5) (0.360)(5) 2 15m / s

v(10) (4.80)(10) (0.360)(10) 2 12m / s

(c)

0 4.80t 0.360t 2

t 13.3s

acceleration (a) is the time rate of change in velocity.

average

(aav)

acceleration

v v2 v1

aav

t t 2 t1

acceleration as the time interval approaches zero.

v

a (t ) lim

t 0 t

dv

a (t )

dt

of

average

EXAMPLE

3:

(a)

v(0) (3.00m / s ) (0.100m / s 3 )(0) 2 3.00m / s

v(5) (3.00m / s ) (0.100m / s 3 )(5s ) 2 0.500m / s

v v (3.00m / s ) (0.500m / s )

aave 2 1

0.500m / s 2

t 2 t1

(5s 0)

(b)

a (t ) (0.200m / s 3 )t

a (5) (0.200m / s 3 )(5s ) 1.00m / s 2

EXAMPLE

3:

(c)

t (s)

v

(m/s)

v (m/s)

v (m/s)

t (s)

t (s)

with

constant

velocity

in

the

positive direction.

with

constant

velocity

in

the

negative direction.

v (m/s)

v (m/s)

The object is at

rest.

t (s)

with

increasing

velocity

(uniformly

accelerating).

t (s)

with

decreasing

velocity

(uniformly

decelerating).

a

(m/s2)

with

constant

velocity

in

the

positive direction.

t (s)

with

increasing

velocity

(uniformly

accelerating).

a

(m/s2)

t (s)

t (s)

with

constant

velocity

in

the

negative direction.

a

(m/s2)

a

(m/s2)

Time

t (s)

with

decreasing

velocity

(uniformly

decelerating).

uniformly accelerated

acceleration.

motion

is

motion

with

Motion

x

assuming that t0 = 0.

Equation 1: vav

Equation 2:

vo v

vav

2

Equation 3:

v vo

a

t

assuming that t0 = 0.

constant

Motion

x

dx

Recall: v

dt

Equation 4:

dv

Recall: a

dt

xo

x xo vot 12 at 2

dv a dt

to

to

x vo t 12 at 2

dx

vdv

a dt adx

dt

1 v 2 vo

x xo

a 2

2

2

1 v

xo dx a vo vdv

x

v vo

x

2a

2

Equation 5:

dx v dt

EXAMPLE

4:

FIND: (a) vo and (b) a

(a)

x 70m

vav

10.0m / s

t

7s

vav

v vo 15m / s vo

10.0m / s

2

2

(b)

v vo (15m / s ) (5m / s )

a

1.43m / s 2

t

7s

#5:

#5:

A particle's position is given by x = 10.0 - 12.00t + 3t2, in which x is in meters and t is

in seconds. (a) What is its velocity at t= 1 s? (b) Is it moving in the positive or

negative direction of x just then? (c) What is its speed just then? (d) Is the speed

increasing or decreasing just then? (Try answering the next two questions without

further calculation.) (e) Is there ever an instant when the velocity is zero? If so, give

the time t; if not, answer "0". (f) Is there a time after t = 3 s when the particle is

moving in the negative direction of x? If so, give the time t; if not, answer "0".

The position of a particle moving along the x axis is given in centimeters

by x = 9.17 + 1.17 t3, where t is in seconds. Calculate(a) the average

velocity during the time interval t = 2.00 s to t = 3.00 s; (b) the

instantaneous velocity at t = 2.00 s; (c) the instantaneous velocity at

t = 3.00 s; (d) the instantaneous velocity at t = 2.50 s; and (e) the

instantaneous velocity when the particle is midway between its positions

at t = 2.00 s and t = 3.00 s.

(a) If the maximum acceleration that is tolerable for passengers in a

subway train is 1.74 m/s2 and subway stations are located806 m apart,

what is the maximum speed a subway train can attain between

stations? (b) What is the travel time between stations? (c) If a subway

train stops for 23.0 s at each station, what is the maximum average

speed of the train, from one start-up to the next?

You are driving toward a traffic signal when it turns yellow. Your speed is

the legal speed limit of v0 = 55 km/h; your best deceleration rate has the

magnitude a = 5.18 m/s2. Your best reaction time to begin braking is t =

0.75 s. To avoid having the front of your car enter the intersection after

the light turns red, should you brake to a stop or continue to move at 55

km/h if the distance to the intersection and the duration of the yellow

light are (a) 37 m and 2.9 s, and (b) 32 m and 1.6 s? Give an answer of

brake, continue, either (if either strategy works), or neither (if neither

strategy

works

and

the

yellow

duration

is

inappropriate).

free fall is motion under the action of the force of gravity alone

(air resistance is neglected).

a freely-falling body has a constant acceleration called the

acceleration due to gravity g = - 9.80 m/s2 (always directed

downward).

Equations of Free

Fall

Equation 1: vav

Equation 2:

Equation 3:

Equation 4:

Equation 5:

y

t

vo v

vav

2

v vo

g

t

y vo t 12 gt 2

v 2 vo

y

2g

convention. All quantities with

downward

direction

should

have a negative sign.

downward velocity: - v

upward velocity: +v

downward displacement: - y

upward displacement: + y

acceleration: g= -9.80 m/s2

#6:

#7:

ANSWERS:

(a) y1 = 10.1m; v1 = 5.2 m/s and y4 = -18.4 m; v1 =-24.2 m/s

(b) v =11.3 m/s (c) y =+11.5 m

(d) a = g = - 9.8

m/s2

#

8

A stone is dropped into a river from a bridge 45.4 m above the water.

Another stone is thrown vertically down 1.91 s after the first is dropped.

Both stones strike the water at the same time. What is the initial speed of

the second stone?

Answer: 34.5 m/s

Chapter 02, Problem 060

A rock is thrown vertically upward from ground level at time t = 0.

At t = 1.7 s it passes the top of a tall tower, and 1.2 s later it reaches

its maximum height. What is the height of the tower?

Answers: 34 m

Chapter 02, Problem 062

A basketball player grabbing a rebound jumps 77 cm vertically. How much

total time (ascent and descent) does the player spend(a) in the top 10

cm of this jump and (b) in the bottom 10 cm? Do your results explain

why such players seem to hang in the air at the top of a jump?

Answers: (a) 0.286 s (b) 0.0533s

A drowsy cat is looking at a window from across the room, and sees a

flowerpot that sail first up and then down past the window. The pot is

in view for a total of 0.46 s, and the top-to-bottom height of the

window is 2.02 m. How high above the window top does the flowerpot

go?

Answers: 2.99 m

Projectile Motion

A body moving with constant horizontal velocity while in free fall is

called a projectile and its motion is called projectile motion.

velocity of projectile:

2

v vx v y

v x vo cos

v y vo sin gt

tan

vy

vx

x

vx

t

vo sin 2

R

|g|

2

v y vo sin gt

y vo sin t gt

1

2

v y vo y

2g

H ymax

vo sin

2| g |

A projectile is fired horizontally from a gun that is 35.0 m above flat

ground, emerging from the gun with a speed of 170 m/s. (a)How long

does the projectile remain in the air? (b) At what horizontal distance

from the firing point does it strike the ground? (c)What is the magnitude

of the vertical component of its velocity as it strikes the ground?

Answers: (a) 2.67 s (b) 454 m (c) 26.2 m/s

A certain airplane has a speed of 261.5 km/h and is diving at an angle

of = 29.0 below the horizontal when the pilot releases a radar decoy

(see the figure). The horizontal distance between the release point and

the point where the decoy strikes the ground is d = 633 m. (a) How long

is the decoy in the air? (b) How high was the release point?

Answers: (a) 9.96 s (b) 837 m

In the figure, a stone is projected at a cliff of height h with an initial

speed of 49.0 m/s directed at an angle 0 = 55.0 above the horizontal.

The stone strikes at A, 5.76 s after launching. Find (a) the height h of the

cliff, (b) the speed of the stone just before impact at A, and (c) the

maximum height H reached above the ground.

In the figure, a ball is launched with a velocity of magnitude 8.00 m/s, at

an angle of 47.0 to the horizontal. The launch point is at the base of a

ramp of horizontal lengthd1 = 6.00 m and height d2 = 3.60 m. A plateau

is located at the top of the ramp. (a) Does the ball land on the ramp or

the plateau? When it lands, what are the (b)magnitude and (c) angle of

its displacement from the launch point?

(b) in the river, 28.5 m from

the near bank

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