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UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION (UCM)

ANGULAR QUANTITIES

1. ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT ( or
)

s or x
or
r

From 1 to 2 there is a change in


linear displacement (arc s), and also
a change in angle from 0 to . As the
arc length increases the angle in the
circle also increases

s
s=r
x = r = x / r

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION (UCM)


ANGULAR QUANTITIES

2. ANGULAR VELOCITY ()
This is the change in
displacement with respect to an
interval of time

x
r
=
t
v = t = v / r
r

AVE

=
t

INS

d
=
dt

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION (UCM)


ANGULAR QUANTITIES

3. ANGULAR ACCELERATION
(in)velocity with
This is the change
respect to an interval of time

v
r
=

t
a = t = a / r
r

AVE

=
t

INS

d
=
dt

* a = r (refers to tangential
acceleration)

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION (UCM)


ANGULAR QUANTITIES

5. FREQUENCY
A quantity that is the reciprocal of
s = Circumference =(f)

4. PERIOD (T)

Period .

2r

It is usually in radians per seconds


or revolution/second

f=1/T
r

= 360 = 2 rad =
1 rev
Period is Time for 1 revolution. It is
usually in seconds or
second/revolution

6. ANGULAR FREQUENCY
( )
This is the (average)fangular
velocity for a revolution

f = 2f

f =
2/T

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION (UCM)

CENTRIPETAL FORCE
(FC)

The Net force that tends to deflect an object from


moving in a straight path and causes to go in a
circular path. This is directed to the axis of rotation

CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION (aC)


Also known as the radial acceleration. This is the
acceleration associated with centripetal force and
follow the NSLM, it also goes to the axis of rotation.

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION (UCM)


CENTRIPETAL FORCE (FC)

(vT) Tangential velocity is also the Linear


Velocity. If the angular velocity is known
then

ac = vT2/r

FC

vT
m

ac

FC = m(vT2/ r)

If the angular frequency is known (f) :

vT = r

ac = r2

FC = mr2

If the period or frequency is known :

r
NSLM Fnet = Fx = ma and by
observation there is no vertical
Fnet = ma
movement
: Fy
=0
c
FC = mac

aC = r(2/T)2 =
(42r)/T22
FC = (m4 r) /
T2 2
aC = r(2f) =
42f2r 2 2
FC =m4 f r

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION (UCM)


2
1

ac

vT

vT
v4 v3 v2 v1

4
3

In UCM, the angular velocity &


angular acceleration at ANY
point or radial distance within
that circle is constant.

BUT, the linear or tangential


velocity & ( acceleration )
differs at ANY point or radial
distance within that circle.

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION (UCM)

Linear Motion Equations

Rotational Motion Equations

x = xO + vO t +
at2
x = vOt +
at2

= O + Ot +
t2
= Ot +
t2

vF = vO + at

F = O + t

vF2 = vO2 + 2a(x)

F2 = O2 + 2()
is in radians

1. A point on a wheel rotating 5 rev/s and located 0.2 m from the axis
experiences what centripetal acceleration?
= 5 rev/s

ac = r2
= (5 rev/s)x(2 rad/ 1 rev) = 10
rad/s

ac = ?
r= 0.2
m

ac = (0.2 m)(10
rad/s)2
ac = 197.392
m/s2

2. A sled with mass = 25kg rest on a horizontal sheet of frictionless ice.


It is attached by a 5 m rope to a post set in the ice. Once pushed, the
sled revolves uniformly in a circle around the post. If the sled makes
five complete revolutions per minute. Find the force exerted on it by the
rope.
Top View
Isolating the
sled

T
r=5 m

T = Fc =
mr2
m=25 kg
T = (25 kg)(5m)(0.524
rad/s)2
T = 34.322 N

= (5 rev/min) X (2 rad/1rev) X
(1min/60
sec)
= 0.524

UNIFORM CIRCULAR
MOTION
vT

vT

ac

Uniform Horizontal Circular


Motion
Tangential or Linear Velocity
(vT) is constant and
perpendicular to the radial or
centripetal acceleration (aC)
F

vT
ac

ac
vT

axi
s

ac
vT

ac

ac

W=
mg

ac
vT

vT
TOP VIEW

Fx = Fc =
ma=c 0
Fy

r
Fc or any net force is not
drawn on the FBD

FRONT VIEW
(half)

3. A 0.8 kg block in the figure is attached to a vertical rod by means of two


strings. When the string rotates about an axis of the rod the string extends as
shown:
(a) How many revolutions per second must the system must make in order that
the tension in the upper string shall be 15 N?
(b) What is the tension on the lower string?

Given :

Before Rotation

@ Rotation

=?

T1 = 15 N

= 37

3m

W = mg
W=

mg
T2 = ?

3. A 0.8 kg block in the figure is attached to a vertical rod by means of two


strings. When the string rotates about an axis of the rod the string extends as
shown:
(a) How many revolutions per second must the system must make in order that
the tension in the upper string shall be 15 N?
(b) What is the tension on the lower string?

Given :

FBD during Rotation

T1 = 15
N

T1Y

T1 = 15
N
= 37

= 37

T1X
ac

W=
mg

= 37
T

T2X
= 37 ac

axi
s
W=
mg

T2Y

axi
s

3. A 0.8 kg block in the figure is attached to a vertical rod by means of two


strings. When the string rotates about an axis of the rod the string extends as
shown:
(a) How many revolutions per second must the system must make in order that
the tension in the upper string shall be 15 N?
(b) What is the tension on the lower string?

Given :

Fnet = mac

FBD during Rotation

T1Y

T1 = 15
N

= 37
T1X

W=
mg

Fx = maC (+)

Fy = 0 (+)
+T1x + T2x = +maC +T1y T2y W = 0
T1 sin + T2sin = +T1y T2y = W
ma
TC1 cos T2cos = mg
sin (T1 +
TC2) = ma

T2X
ac

= 37
T2Y

aC = [sin (T1 +
T2)]/m

(15)cos37 T2 cos37=
11.98 (0.8)(9.8)
N T cos37=
2

7.84 N
T2 = 5.18 N

T
2

ac = r2

axi
s

aC = [sin37(15N + 5.18N)]/
(0.8 kg)

3. A 0.8 kg block in the figure is attached to a vertical rod by means of two


strings. When the string rotates about an axis of the rod the string extends as
shown:
(a) How many revolutions per second must the system must make in order that
the tension in the upper string shall be 15 N?
(b) What is the tension on the lower string?

Given :

aC = 25.23
m/s2

FBD during Rotation

T2Y

T1 = 15
N

= 37

W=
mg

T
2

3
m

T2X
ac

T2Y

= 37

T1X

= 37

ac = r2 2 = ac /r

axi
s

r
tan 37 = r /
(1.5 m)
r = 1.13 m

1.5
m

UNIFORM VERTICAL CIRCULAR MOTION


F
F

vT

Tangential or Linear
Velocity (vT) is constant
and perpendicular to the
radial or centripetal
acceleration (aC)
vT

vT

ac

Effect of Weight is
present and its
reaction force (F) is
considered in the
analysis.

W = mg

ac

ac

W = mg
F

Fy = Fc =
ma=c 0
Fx

W = mg
F

ac

vT

ac

ac
vT

vT

W = mg
W = mg

W = mg

FRONT VIEW

NON- UNIFORM VERTICAL CIRCULAR MOTION


F

FRONT VIEW
Tangential or Linear
Velocity (vT) is not
constant and but still
perpendicular to the
radial or centripetal
acceleration (aC) whichv
T
also varies.

vT

vT

ac

Effect of Weight is
present and its
reaction force (F) is
considered in the
analysis.

W = mg

ac

ac

W = mg
F

Fy = Fc =
ma=c 0
Fx

W = mg
F

ac

vT

ac

ac
vT

Fc or any net force is not


drawn on the FBD

vT

W = mg
W = mg

W = mg

Vertical Circ. Motion


1. Tarzan (m=85 kg) tries to cross a river by swinging from a 10m long vine. His speed at the bottom of
the swing (as he just clears the water) is 8 m/s. Tarzan doesnt know that the vine has a breaking
strength of 1000 N. Does he make it safely across the river?

Tmax = 1000 N

r = 10 m
ac

mT = 85 kg

vT = 8 m/s

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION APPLICATIONS


ROAD CURVES DESIGN
FLAT CURVES
TOP VIEW

REAR VIEW
vTmax = ?

r is radius of curvature

axis

A FLAT CURVED ROAD HAS A MAXIMUM VELOCITY LIMIT IN


WHICH BELOW THIS SPEED THE CAR CAN SAFELY ROUND
THE CURVE WITHOUT SKIDDING FROM THE ROAD. This can
be calculated using UCM & NSLM

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION APPLICATIONS


ROAD CURVES DESIGN

N
FBD

FLAT CURVES

ac

f
r is radius of curvature

ac

axi
s

Wc = mc g
NSLM F = ma and by observation there is
no vertical movement : Fy = 0

Fx = max (+)
Fy = 0
+ f = +mcac
+NW
(+)
c= 0
f = (mcvTmax2) /
N = Wc =
f = sN
r
mcg
N
2
sN = (mcvTmax ) /
vTmax2 = srg
f is the (net) side frictional force acting
rsmcg =
on the car. It is the only force along the
2 2
) /)r/ r
s(m
g=
(vTmax
cvTmax
v
=

Wc = mc g

x-axis providing the net force centripetal force.

Tmax

rg

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION APPLICATIONS


ROAD CURVES DESIGN
BANKED CURVES
TOP VIEW

REAR VIEW

axi
s

CURVED ROADS ARE BANKED AT AN ANGLE ()


PRIMARILY FOR SAFETY REASONS DURING WET OR
FROZEN ROADS WHERE FRICTION IS CLOSE TO
ZERO.

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION APPLICATIONS


BANKED CURVES
r is radius of curvature

ac

axi
s

N
FBD

Wc = mc g
N

NSLM F = ma and by observation there is


no vertical movement : Fy = 0

Fx = max (+)
+ Nx =
N sin+m
=
mcac
cac

Fy = 0
+ Ny (+)
Wc =
N cos 0
= Wc =
mcg
N = (mcg) / cos
(mcg / cos ) sin =
mc
ac = m a
m g tan
c

Ny = N cos

ac

ac

Nx = N sin

W c = mc g

Wc = mc g

g tan = ac
tan = ac/g

= tan
(ac/g)

-1

but
ac = vTmax2 /r

= tan -1 [(vTmax2/
(rg)]

1. A flat (unbanked) curve on a highway has a radius of 240 m. A car


rounds the curve at a speed of 28 m/s. What is the minimum
coefficient of static friction that will prevent sliding?
Given : r = 240 m, v = 28 m/s
Solution

v2 = srg
s = v2 / rg

Required : S

s = (28 m/s)2 / [(240m)(9.8


m/s2)]

s = 0.333

2. A highway curve with radius 900 ft is to be banked so that a car


traveling 55 mi/hr will not skid sideways even in the absence of
friction. At what angle should the curve be banked?
Given : r = 900 ft, v = 55 mi/hr

Required :

Solution

= tan

-1

[(v2/(rg)]

(we need to convert v in terms of ft/sec for us to use this


formula)

v = 55 mi/hr X (5280 ft /1 mi) X (1 hr/3600


sec)

= tan

-1

v = 80.667
ft/s

{(80.667 ft/s)2/[(900ft)(32ft/s2)]}
= 12.732

3 . The radius of a Ferris wheel is 8 m, and it makes one revolution in


12 s.
Find the apparent weight (Normal Force) of an 80 kg passenger at the
highest & lowest points.

NT

a
c

W=
mg
NB

a
c

W=
mg

A ferris wheel is a vertical circle moving at


constant speed (UNIFORM VERTICAL
CIRCULAR MOTION). Apparent weight means
the effect of feeling light or heavy at certain
portions of the ride as the ferris wheel is
operated. This is due to the normal force
exerted by wheels cab in reaction to your
weight and the motion of the wheel
T = 12
sec

aC = (42r)/T2
aC = [(42)(8m)]/(12s)2
aC = 2.193 m/s2
W = 80 kg( 9.8 m/s2) =
784 N

@ the TOP of the Ferris


Wheel

NT

NT

@ the BOTTOM of the Ferris


Wheel

NB

NB

ac

ac

ac

ac

W=
W=
mg
mg
Fy = may

W=
W=
mg
mg
Fy = may

+NT (+)
W =
N ma
mgc =

+NB (+)
W =+
N ma
mgc = +

mac mac
NT = mg
NT = m(g ac)

mac+ mac
NB = mg
NB = m(g + ac)

NT = 80 kg( 9.8 m/s2 2.193


m/s2)
NT = 608.560
N

NB = 80 kg( 9.8 m/s2 + 2.193


m/s2)
NB = 959.460
N

Hence passenger feels lighter at the top than at the bottom due to
the effect of centripetal force

4 . A cord is tied to a pail of water, and the pail is swung in a vertical


circle with radius 1.4m. What must be the minimum speed of the pail at
the highest point of the circle if no water is to spill from the pail?
Similar to prob 3, but here the
tangential velocity is not uniform,
since it is asking for a minimum
speed, which is found at the highest
point of a NON-UNIFORM CIRCULAR
MOTION
This velocity is NOT zero, but fast
enough to counter gravitys pull on
the water in the pail.

v
T

T1

W=
mg

a
c

r = 1.4
m

T2

Instead of Normal force we have


Tension on the cord as our reaction
force.

a
c

v
T

W=
mg

vT

T1

W = mg
ac

T1 + mg = (mvT2) / r
To get the minimum velocity, the tension
in the cord must also be the minimum,
which is zero.

0 + mg = (mvMIN2) / r
g = vMIN2 / r

T1

W = mg
ac
Fy = may (+)

T1 W = mac
T1 mg = mac
ac = vT2 / r
(T1+ mg) = (mvT2) / r

vMIN2 = gr = (9.8 m/s2)(1.4 m) = 13.72 m2/s2


vMIN = 3.704m/s

UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION


This was discovered by Sir Isaac Newton:
States that Every particle of matter in the universe
attracts every other particle with a force that is directly
proportional to the product of the masses of the particle
and inversely proportional to the square of the distance
between them .
Illustration :
Using Newtons Third Law of
Motion
F21 m2

F12 = - F21

F23
r

r1

F23 = - F32

F32

F12

m1

F31

F13
r3

F13 = - F31

m3

NTLM :To every action


there is always opposed
an equal reaction, same in
magnitude but opposite in
direction.

UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION


Consider Two Objects
:

UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION


FORCE OF
GRAVITY

M : (mass of anything on the


earth)
ME = 5.98 x 1024
kg
(mass of the
RE = 6.38 x 106 m
earth)

(radius of the
earth)
G = 6.67 x 10 -11
Nm2/kg2

FME = G

M ME
R

2
E

= (6.67 x 10

FME = (9.8 m/s2) M

-11

M2 (5.98 x 10 24
Nm /kg )
(6.38 xkg)
106 m)2
2

FME = W = Mg

g = GME/
RE2

1. The mass of the moon is about 1.23%, and its radius is 25%, that of
the earth. Compute for the acceleration due to gravity on the moons
surface from this data.

ME = 5.98 x 1024 kg (mass of the earth)


RE = 6.38 x 106 m (radius of the
earth)
G = 6.67 x 10 -11 Nm2/kg2 (Universal) Gravitational
Constant
Mm = (0.0123)(5.98 x 1024 kg) = 7.383 x 1022 kg
Rm = (0.25)(6.38 x 106 m) = 1.595 x 106 m

gm = GMm/ Rm2
gm = (6.67x10-11 Nm2/kg2)(7.383x1022 kg)/
(1.595x106m)2
gm = 1.936
m/s2

1. The mass of the moon is about 1.23%, and its radius is 25%, that of
the earth. Compute for the acceleration due to gravity on the moons
surface from this data.

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION

gE = GME/
gm = GMm/ Rm2
RE2
G=G
gERE2 / ME=gmRm2 / Mm
gm = gE(Mm/ME)(RE/Rm)2
From given : Mm = (0.0123)ME & Rm =
(0.25)R
gE = 9.8
m/s2
E
gm = (9.8 m/s2)(0.0123ME/ME)(RE/0.25RE)2
gm = (9.8 m/s2)(0.0123)(4)2
gm = 1.928
m/s2

2. At what point between the Earth and the Moon is the gravitational
pull of the Earth equal in magnitude to that of the moon? Assume an
object with mass M in between the earth and the moon. (Average
distance between Earth & Moon : 3.84x108 m)

D = 3.84x108 m

MM = 7.36x
1022 kg

ME = 5.98 x
1024 kg

RSE

RSM

2. At what point between the Earth and the Moon is the gravitational
pull of the Earth equal in magnitude to that of the moon? Assume an
object with mass M in between the earth and the moon. (Average
distance between Earth & Moon : 3.84x108 m)

D = 3.84x108 m

ME = 5.98 x
1024 kg

FES
FES =
FSE

RSE

FSE

FSM

MM = 7.36x
1022 kg
FMS

FSM = FMS

RSM

2. At what point between the Earth and the Moon is the gravitational
pull of the Earth equal in magnitude to that of the moon? Assume an
object with mass M in between the earth and the moon. (Average
distance between Earth & Moon : 3.84x108 m)

FSE

FSM

FSE = GMEM / RSE2FSM = GMMM /


2
R
SM
FSE = FSM
ME = 5.98 x
1024 kg
GMEM/ RSE2 =
2 2 RSM
RSE
GMM/
GM
R SM
=
MM/R
E

SE

2
GM2MM/R
2
SM
ME/R
=
M
/R
SE
M
SM

MERSM2 = MMRSE2
RSM2 = (MM/ME)RSE2
RSM2 = (0.0123)RSE2
RSM = 0.1109RSE

2. At what point between the Earth and the Moon is the gravitational
pull of the Earth equal in magnitude to that of the moon? Assume an
object with mass M in between the earth and the moon. (Average
distance between Earth & Moon : 3.84x108 m)

FSE

FSM

RSM = 0.1109RSE
RSE

RSM

D = 3.84 x 108 m
D = RSM + RSE
3.84x108m = 0.1109RSE
+ RSE
8
3.84x10
m = 1.1109RSE

(3.84x108m)/1.1109 =
RSE
RSE =
RSM=
3.46x108m
38.37x106m

SatelliteMotion