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You are on page 1of 37

ANGULAR QUANTITIES

1. ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT ( or

)

s or x

or

r

linear displacement (arc s), and also

a change in angle from 0 to . As the

arc length increases the angle in the

circle also increases

s

s=r

x = r = x / r

ANGULAR QUANTITIES

2. ANGULAR VELOCITY ()

This is the change in

displacement with respect to an

interval of time

x

r

=

t

v = t = v / r

r

AVE

=

t

INS

d

=

dt

ANGULAR QUANTITIES

3. ANGULAR ACCELERATION

(in)velocity with

This is the change

respect to an interval of time

v

r

=

t

a = t = a / r

r

AVE

=

t

INS

d

=

dt

* a = r (refers to tangential

acceleration)

ANGULAR QUANTITIES

5. FREQUENCY

A quantity that is the reciprocal of

s = Circumference =(f)

4. PERIOD (T)

Period .

2r

or revolution/second

f=1/T

r

= 360 = 2 rad =

1 rev

Period is Time for 1 revolution. It is

usually in seconds or

second/revolution

6. ANGULAR FREQUENCY

( )

This is the (average)fangular

velocity for a revolution

f = 2f

f =

2/T

CENTRIPETAL FORCE

(FC)

moving in a straight path and causes to go in a

circular path. This is directed to the axis of rotation

Also known as the radial acceleration. This is the

acceleration associated with centripetal force and

follow the NSLM, it also goes to the axis of rotation.

CENTRIPETAL FORCE (FC)

Velocity. If the angular velocity is known

then

ac = vT2/r

FC

vT

m

ac

FC = m(vT2/ r)

vT = r

ac = r2

FC = mr2

r

NSLM Fnet = Fx = ma and by

observation there is no vertical

Fnet = ma

movement

: Fy

=0

c

FC = mac

aC = r(2/T)2 =

(42r)/T22

FC = (m4 r) /

T2 2

aC = r(2f) =

42f2r 2 2

FC =m4 f r

2

1

ac

vT

vT

v4 v3 v2 v1

4

3

angular acceleration at ANY

point or radial distance within

that circle is constant.

velocity & ( acceleration )

differs at ANY point or radial

distance within that circle.

x = xO + vO t +

at2

x = vOt +

at2

= O + Ot +

t2

= Ot +

t2

vF = vO + at

F = O + t

F2 = O2 + 2()

is in radians

1. A point on a wheel rotating 5 rev/s and located 0.2 m from the axis

experiences what centripetal acceleration?

= 5 rev/s

ac = r2

= (5 rev/s)x(2 rad/ 1 rev) = 10

rad/s

ac = ?

r= 0.2

m

ac = (0.2 m)(10

rad/s)2

ac = 197.392

m/s2

It is attached by a 5 m rope to a post set in the ice. Once pushed, the

sled revolves uniformly in a circle around the post. If the sled makes

five complete revolutions per minute. Find the force exerted on it by the

rope.

Top View

Isolating the

sled

T

r=5 m

T = Fc =

mr2

m=25 kg

T = (25 kg)(5m)(0.524

rad/s)2

T = 34.322 N

= (5 rev/min) X (2 rad/1rev) X

(1min/60

sec)

= 0.524

UNIFORM CIRCULAR

MOTION

vT

vT

ac

Motion

Tangential or Linear Velocity

(vT) is constant and

perpendicular to the radial or

centripetal acceleration (aC)

F

vT

ac

ac

vT

axi

s

ac

vT

ac

ac

W=

mg

ac

vT

vT

TOP VIEW

Fx = Fc =

ma=c 0

Fy

r

Fc or any net force is not

drawn on the FBD

FRONT VIEW

(half)

strings. When the string rotates about an axis of the rod the string extends as

shown:

(a) How many revolutions per second must the system must make in order that

the tension in the upper string shall be 15 N?

(b) What is the tension on the lower string?

Given :

Before Rotation

@ Rotation

=?

T1 = 15 N

= 37

3m

W = mg

W=

mg

T2 = ?

strings. When the string rotates about an axis of the rod the string extends as

shown:

(a) How many revolutions per second must the system must make in order that

the tension in the upper string shall be 15 N?

(b) What is the tension on the lower string?

Given :

T1 = 15

N

T1Y

T1 = 15

N

= 37

= 37

T1X

ac

W=

mg

= 37

T

T2X

= 37 ac

axi

s

W=

mg

T2Y

axi

s

strings. When the string rotates about an axis of the rod the string extends as

shown:

(a) How many revolutions per second must the system must make in order that

the tension in the upper string shall be 15 N?

(b) What is the tension on the lower string?

Given :

Fnet = mac

T1Y

T1 = 15

N

= 37

T1X

W=

mg

Fx = maC (+)

Fy = 0 (+)

+T1x + T2x = +maC +T1y T2y W = 0

T1 sin + T2sin = +T1y T2y = W

ma

TC1 cos T2cos = mg

sin (T1 +

TC2) = ma

T2X

ac

= 37

T2Y

aC = [sin (T1 +

T2)]/m

(15)cos37 T2 cos37=

11.98 (0.8)(9.8)

N T cos37=

2

7.84 N

T2 = 5.18 N

T

2

ac = r2

axi

s

aC = [sin37(15N + 5.18N)]/

(0.8 kg)

strings. When the string rotates about an axis of the rod the string extends as

shown:

(a) How many revolutions per second must the system must make in order that

the tension in the upper string shall be 15 N?

(b) What is the tension on the lower string?

Given :

aC = 25.23

m/s2

T2Y

T1 = 15

N

= 37

W=

mg

T

2

3

m

T2X

ac

T2Y

= 37

T1X

= 37

ac = r2 2 = ac /r

axi

s

r

tan 37 = r /

(1.5 m)

r = 1.13 m

1.5

m

F

F

vT

Tangential or Linear

Velocity (vT) is constant

and perpendicular to the

radial or centripetal

acceleration (aC)

vT

vT

ac

Effect of Weight is

present and its

reaction force (F) is

considered in the

analysis.

W = mg

ac

ac

W = mg

F

Fy = Fc =

ma=c 0

Fx

W = mg

F

ac

vT

ac

ac

vT

vT

W = mg

W = mg

W = mg

FRONT VIEW

F

FRONT VIEW

Tangential or Linear

Velocity (vT) is not

constant and but still

perpendicular to the

radial or centripetal

acceleration (aC) whichv

T

also varies.

vT

vT

ac

Effect of Weight is

present and its

reaction force (F) is

considered in the

analysis.

W = mg

ac

ac

W = mg

F

Fy = Fc =

ma=c 0

Fx

W = mg

F

ac

vT

ac

ac

vT

drawn on the FBD

vT

W = mg

W = mg

W = mg

1. Tarzan (m=85 kg) tries to cross a river by swinging from a 10m long vine. His speed at the bottom of

the swing (as he just clears the water) is 8 m/s. Tarzan doesnt know that the vine has a breaking

strength of 1000 N. Does he make it safely across the river?

Tmax = 1000 N

r = 10 m

ac

mT = 85 kg

vT = 8 m/s

ROAD CURVES DESIGN

FLAT CURVES

TOP VIEW

REAR VIEW

vTmax = ?

r is radius of curvature

axis

WHICH BELOW THIS SPEED THE CAR CAN SAFELY ROUND

THE CURVE WITHOUT SKIDDING FROM THE ROAD. This can

be calculated using UCM & NSLM

ROAD CURVES DESIGN

N

FBD

FLAT CURVES

ac

f

r is radius of curvature

ac

axi

s

Wc = mc g

NSLM F = ma and by observation there is

no vertical movement : Fy = 0

Fx = max (+)

Fy = 0

+ f = +mcac

+NW

(+)

c= 0

f = (mcvTmax2) /

N = Wc =

f = sN

r

mcg

N

2

sN = (mcvTmax ) /

vTmax2 = srg

f is the (net) side frictional force acting

rsmcg =

on the car. It is the only force along the

2 2

) /)r/ r

s(m

g=

(vTmax

cvTmax

v

=

Wc = mc g

Tmax

rg

ROAD CURVES DESIGN

BANKED CURVES

TOP VIEW

REAR VIEW

axi

s

PRIMARILY FOR SAFETY REASONS DURING WET OR

FROZEN ROADS WHERE FRICTION IS CLOSE TO

ZERO.

BANKED CURVES

r is radius of curvature

ac

axi

s

N

FBD

Wc = mc g

N

no vertical movement : Fy = 0

Fx = max (+)

+ Nx =

N sin+m

=

mcac

cac

Fy = 0

+ Ny (+)

Wc =

N cos 0

= Wc =

mcg

N = (mcg) / cos

(mcg / cos ) sin =

mc

ac = m a

m g tan

c

Ny = N cos

ac

ac

Nx = N sin

W c = mc g

Wc = mc g

g tan = ac

tan = ac/g

= tan

(ac/g)

-1

but

ac = vTmax2 /r

= tan -1 [(vTmax2/

(rg)]

rounds the curve at a speed of 28 m/s. What is the minimum

coefficient of static friction that will prevent sliding?

Given : r = 240 m, v = 28 m/s

Solution

v2 = srg

s = v2 / rg

Required : S

m/s2)]

s = 0.333

traveling 55 mi/hr will not skid sideways even in the absence of

friction. At what angle should the curve be banked?

Given : r = 900 ft, v = 55 mi/hr

Required :

Solution

= tan

-1

[(v2/(rg)]

formula)

sec)

= tan

-1

v = 80.667

ft/s

{(80.667 ft/s)2/[(900ft)(32ft/s2)]}

= 12.732

12 s.

Find the apparent weight (Normal Force) of an 80 kg passenger at the

highest & lowest points.

NT

a

c

W=

mg

NB

a

c

W=

mg

constant speed (UNIFORM VERTICAL

CIRCULAR MOTION). Apparent weight means

the effect of feeling light or heavy at certain

portions of the ride as the ferris wheel is

operated. This is due to the normal force

exerted by wheels cab in reaction to your

weight and the motion of the wheel

T = 12

sec

aC = (42r)/T2

aC = [(42)(8m)]/(12s)2

aC = 2.193 m/s2

W = 80 kg( 9.8 m/s2) =

784 N

Wheel

NT

NT

Wheel

NB

NB

ac

ac

ac

ac

W=

W=

mg

mg

Fy = may

W=

W=

mg

mg

Fy = may

+NT (+)

W =

N ma

mgc =

+NB (+)

W =+

N ma

mgc = +

mac mac

NT = mg

NT = m(g ac)

mac+ mac

NB = mg

NB = m(g + ac)

m/s2)

NT = 608.560

N

m/s2)

NB = 959.460

N

Hence passenger feels lighter at the top than at the bottom due to

the effect of centripetal force

circle with radius 1.4m. What must be the minimum speed of the pail at

the highest point of the circle if no water is to spill from the pail?

Similar to prob 3, but here the

tangential velocity is not uniform,

since it is asking for a minimum

speed, which is found at the highest

point of a NON-UNIFORM CIRCULAR

MOTION

This velocity is NOT zero, but fast

enough to counter gravitys pull on

the water in the pail.

v

T

T1

W=

mg

a

c

r = 1.4

m

T2

Tension on the cord as our reaction

force.

a

c

v

T

W=

mg

vT

T1

W = mg

ac

T1 + mg = (mvT2) / r

To get the minimum velocity, the tension

in the cord must also be the minimum,

which is zero.

0 + mg = (mvMIN2) / r

g = vMIN2 / r

T1

W = mg

ac

Fy = may (+)

T1 W = mac

T1 mg = mac

ac = vT2 / r

(T1+ mg) = (mvT2) / r

vMIN = 3.704m/s

This was discovered by Sir Isaac Newton:

States that Every particle of matter in the universe

attracts every other particle with a force that is directly

proportional to the product of the masses of the particle

and inversely proportional to the square of the distance

between them .

Illustration :

Using Newtons Third Law of

Motion

F21 m2

F12 = - F21

F23

r

r1

F23 = - F32

F32

F12

m1

F31

F13

r3

F13 = - F31

m3

there is always opposed

an equal reaction, same in

magnitude but opposite in

direction.

Consider Two Objects

:

FORCE OF

GRAVITY

earth)

ME = 5.98 x 1024

kg

(mass of the

RE = 6.38 x 106 m

earth)

(radius of the

earth)

G = 6.67 x 10 -11

Nm2/kg2

FME = G

M ME

R

2

E

= (6.67 x 10

-11

M2 (5.98 x 10 24

Nm /kg )

(6.38 xkg)

106 m)2

2

FME = W = Mg

g = GME/

RE2

1. The mass of the moon is about 1.23%, and its radius is 25%, that of

the earth. Compute for the acceleration due to gravity on the moons

surface from this data.

RE = 6.38 x 106 m (radius of the

earth)

G = 6.67 x 10 -11 Nm2/kg2 (Universal) Gravitational

Constant

Mm = (0.0123)(5.98 x 1024 kg) = 7.383 x 1022 kg

Rm = (0.25)(6.38 x 106 m) = 1.595 x 106 m

gm = GMm/ Rm2

gm = (6.67x10-11 Nm2/kg2)(7.383x1022 kg)/

(1.595x106m)2

gm = 1.936

m/s2

1. The mass of the moon is about 1.23%, and its radius is 25%, that of

the earth. Compute for the acceleration due to gravity on the moons

surface from this data.

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION

gE = GME/

gm = GMm/ Rm2

RE2

G=G

gERE2 / ME=gmRm2 / Mm

gm = gE(Mm/ME)(RE/Rm)2

From given : Mm = (0.0123)ME & Rm =

(0.25)R

gE = 9.8

m/s2

E

gm = (9.8 m/s2)(0.0123ME/ME)(RE/0.25RE)2

gm = (9.8 m/s2)(0.0123)(4)2

gm = 1.928

m/s2

2. At what point between the Earth and the Moon is the gravitational

pull of the Earth equal in magnitude to that of the moon? Assume an

object with mass M in between the earth and the moon. (Average

distance between Earth & Moon : 3.84x108 m)

D = 3.84x108 m

MM = 7.36x

1022 kg

ME = 5.98 x

1024 kg

RSE

RSM

2. At what point between the Earth and the Moon is the gravitational

pull of the Earth equal in magnitude to that of the moon? Assume an

object with mass M in between the earth and the moon. (Average

distance between Earth & Moon : 3.84x108 m)

D = 3.84x108 m

ME = 5.98 x

1024 kg

FES

FES =

FSE

RSE

FSE

FSM

MM = 7.36x

1022 kg

FMS

FSM = FMS

RSM

2. At what point between the Earth and the Moon is the gravitational

pull of the Earth equal in magnitude to that of the moon? Assume an

object with mass M in between the earth and the moon. (Average

distance between Earth & Moon : 3.84x108 m)

FSE

FSM

2

R

SM

FSE = FSM

ME = 5.98 x

1024 kg

GMEM/ RSE2 =

2 2 RSM

RSE

GMM/

GM

R SM

=

MM/R

E

SE

2

GM2MM/R

2

SM

ME/R

=

M

/R

SE

M

SM

MERSM2 = MMRSE2

RSM2 = (MM/ME)RSE2

RSM2 = (0.0123)RSE2

RSM = 0.1109RSE

pull of the Earth equal in magnitude to that of the moon? Assume an

object with mass M in between the earth and the moon. (Average

distance between Earth & Moon : 3.84x108 m)

FSE

FSM

RSM = 0.1109RSE

RSE

RSM

D = 3.84 x 108 m

D = RSM + RSE

3.84x108m = 0.1109RSE

+ RSE

8

3.84x10

m = 1.1109RSE

(3.84x108m)/1.1109 =

RSE

RSE =

RSM=

3.46x108m

38.37x106m

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