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Survey of Embryonic

Development

Diagrams showing the size of a human conceptus from fertilization to the early fetal stage

Embryo

Fertilization
1-week conceptus
2-week conceptus
3-week embryo
4-week embryo
5-week embryo

6-week embryo

7-week embryo

8-week embryo
9-week fetus
12-week fetus

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e


by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,


publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Sperm penetration and the cortical reaction (slow block to polyspermy

Sperm
Corona radiata
Zona pellucida
First polar body
Oocyte in
second meiotic
division

(b)
Sperm nucleus
Acrosome
Acrosomal
reaction
Granulosa cells
of corona radiata
Zona pellucida
Extracellular
space
Oocyte plasma
membrane
Cortical granule
Oocyte cytoplasm
(a)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Fusion of oocyte
and sperm plasma Cortical
reaction
membranes
Sperm nucleus engulfed
by oocyte cytoplasm
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Events immediately following sperm penetration

Sperm
Daughter
cells

Extracellular space
Second meiotic division
of oocyte
Second meiotic division
of first polar body

(g)

Detached
sperm tail
(h)
Sperm pronucleus

(a)
Corona
radiata
Zona
pellucida

Ovum
nucleus
Polar
bodies

(b)

Anaphase of
first cleavage
division

(f)

Sperm and ovum


chromosomes

Male pronucleus
Mitotic spindle
Centriole
Female pronucleus

(e)

(c)
Zygote
(d)

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e


by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,


publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Cleavage from zygote to blastocyst

(a) Zygote
(b) 4-cell stage
(fertilized
2 days
egg)
Sperm

(c) Morula
3 days

Degenerating
zona
pellucida
Blastocyst
cavity
(d) Early blastocyst
4 days

Inner cell
mass
Blastocyst
cavity
Trophoblast
(e) Implanting blastocyst
6 days

(b)
Fertilization
(sperm meets egg)

(a)
(c)

Uterine tube
Ovary

Oocyte
(egg)

(d)
Uterus
Ovulation

(e)
Endometrium
Cavity of
uterus

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e


by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,


publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Hormonal changes during pregnancy

Relavtive blood levels

Human chorionic
gonadotropin

Estrogens

Progesterone

Ovulation
and fertilization
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

12

16

20

24

Gestation (weeks)

28

32

36
Birth
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Implantation of the blastocyst

Endometrium
Uterine endometrial
epithelium
Inner cell mass
Trophoblast
Blastocyst cavity
Lumen of uterus
(a)
Endometrial stroma
with blood vessels
and glands
Syncytiotrophoblast
Cytotrophoblast
Inner cell mass
(future embryo)
Lumen of uterus
(b)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

(c)
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Formation of the three primary germ layers

Amniotic sac

Bilayered
embryonic disc

Yolk sac
(b) . . . turned 90(c) 3-D view (d) Section view
in (e)
Amniotic sac (amnion)
Yolk sac
Left

Future opening
between mouth
and pharynx
Head

Cut edge
of amnion
Tail
(a) Embryo
(See Figure 28.7b)
Primitive
Epiblast
streak
Hypoblast
(e) Bilayered embryonic disc,
Right
lateral-superior view
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Yolk sac

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,


publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Formation of the three primary germ layers

Head
Cut edge
of amnion

Primitive streak

Yolk sac
(cut edge)
Epiblast
Hypoblast

Left

Right
Sections

Endoderm
(g) 1415 days
Ectoderm

Primitive
streak
Tail
(f) Bilayered embryonic
disc, superior view

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e


by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

(h) 16 days Mesoderm Definitive


endoderm
Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Neurulation

Head

Left
Cut
edge of
amnion
(a) 17 days

Surface
ectoderm

Neural
plate

Future Amnion
neural Amniotic cavity
crest
Neural plate

Right

Ectoderm
Notochord Mesoderm

Primitive
streak

Notochord
Endoderm

Tail

Yolk sac
Cut edge
of amnion
Neural Neural
plate fold

(b) 19 days
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Primitive
node
Primitive
streak

Neural
groove

Neural
crest

Neural groove

Notochord

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,


publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Tissues derived from the three


germinal layers
Ectoderm: nervous tissues, epidermis
and melanocytes.
Mesoderm: bones, muscles,
mesenchyme, reproductive system,
urinary system.
Endoderm: digestive system, respiratory
system, endocrine system.

Events of placentation, early embryonic development, and extraembryonic membrane formation

Amniotic cavity
Endometrium

Maternal
blood vessels
Proliferating
syncytiotrophoblast
Cytotrophoblast
Amniotic cavity
Bilayered
embryonic
disc:
Epiblast
Hypoblast
Endometrial
epithelium
(a) 71/2-day implanting
blastocyst

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e


by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Lacuna (intervillus
space) containing
maternal blood
Chorionic villus

Primary
germ layers:
Ectoderm
Mesoderm

Chorion
Amnion

Endoderm

Yolk sac

Forming
body stalk
Allantois

Extraembryonic
mesoderm
Chorion
being formed

Extraembryonic
coelom

Lumen of uterus
(b) 12-day implanted
blastocyst

(c) 16-day embryo

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,


publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Embryonic membranes
Amnion: encases and protects embryo
against mechanical and temperature
trauma.
Yolk sac: transfers nutrients to embryo.
Replaced by placenta in humans.
Allantois: repository of embryo wastes.
Replaced by placenta in humans.

Events of placentation, early embryonic development, and extraembryonic membrane formation

Decidua basalis
Maternal blood
Chorionic villus
Umbilical blood
vessels in
umbilical cord
Amnion
Amniotic cavity
Yolk sac
Extraembryonic
coelom
Chorion
Lumen
of uterus

Decidua
capsularis

(d) 41/2-week embryo

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e


by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,


publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Events of placentation, early embryonic development, and extraembryonic membrane formation

Placenta
Decidua basalis
Chorionic villi

Yolk sac
Amnion
Amniotic
cavity
Umbilical cord

Decidua
capsularis
Extraembryonic
coelom

Uterus
Lumen of
uterus

(f) 13-week fetus


Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,


publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Events of placentation, early embryonic development, and extraembryonic membrane formation

Maternal
arteries

Maternal
veins

Myometrium
Stratum basalis of
endometrium
Maternal portion
of placenta
(decidua basalis)
Chorionic villus
containing fetal
capillaries
Maternal blood
in lacuna
(intervillus space)
Fetal arteriole
Fetal venule
Amnion
Umbilical cord

Fetal portion of
placenta (chorion)

Umbilical arteries
Umbilical vein
Connection to
yolk sac

(g)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,


publishing as Benjamin Cummings.