420KV SF6 Circuit Breaker Operation and Testing

420KV SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER OPERATION AND TESTING

CONTENT:

Introduction Classification of circuit breakers Advantages of SF6 circuit breaker Technical data Constructional details Arc phenomenon Operating principle Conclusion

ABSTRACT:

This project is titled ³420 KV SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER OPERATION AND TESTING ³.The operation of 420KV SF6 circuit breakers was explained. The various routine tests recommended by IEC 62271-100 standard is described and the results of the test are compared with the specified values. The first deals with the basic introduction to a circuit breaker, types of circuit breaker, the properties and advantages of SF6 circuit breaker, its disadvantages, technical data, constructional features of the breaker in which various parts of the circuit breaker are explained, It also deals with the basic working principle, arc phenomenon, arc extinction and modes of operation of 420 KV SF6 circuit breaker. The second part covers introduction to IEC 62271-100 standards and various types of tests. A list of various types and routine test is also included.

INTRODUCTION:

With the ever-increasing demand for energy, power generation, transmission and distribution have become very important and circuit breaker is a vital component in the transmission system achieves greater significance. A circuit breaker is a device which can make or break a circuit manually or by remote control under normal conditions, break a circuit automatically under fault conditions and make a circuit either manually or by remote control after fault cleared. The circuit breaker serves two basic purposes: 1. Switching during normal operating conditions for the purpose of operation and maintenance. 2.Switching during abnormal conditions such as short circuit and interrupting fault currents.

CLASSIFICATION OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS:

CLASSIFICATION BY LOCATION:

Switchgear based on where it is located is classi ied as indoor and out-door type.

Medium and low voltage switchgear and high voltage as Insulated Switchgear ( IS) are categorised as indoor type

Where as the out- door switchgear which has air as an external insulating medium is categorised as air insulated switchgear ( IS)

CLASSIFICATION BY EXTERNAL DESIGN:

Out-door circuit breakers can be identified as either dead-tank or live-tank type circuit breakers, from the point of view of their physical structural design. In Dead tank circuit breaker, the switching device is located with suitable insulator supports inside a metallic vessel(s) at ground potential and filled with insulating medium.

In Live tank circuit breaker the interrupter(s) is/are located in an insulator bushing/s and are at a potential above the ground´. The live tank circuit breakers are cheaper and they require less mounting space.

CLASSIFICATION BY INTERRUPTING MEDIA:

Depending upon the interrupting media the circuit breakers are classified into Air Blast Circuit Breaker Oil circuit breakers Vacuum circuit breaker SF6 gas circuit breaker

ADVANTAGES OF SF6 GAS CIRCUIT BREAKERS:
SF6 is an electro-negative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons , so it has very short arcing time. The dielectric strength of SF6 gas is 2 to 3 times that of air, such breakers can interrupt much larger currents. There is no risk of fire because SF6 gas is non-flammable. The SF6 circuit breakers requires low maintenance . Since SF6 breakers are totally enclosed and sealed from atmosphere , they are particularly suitable where explosion hazard exists e.g coal mines.

TECHNICAL DATA:
Electrical data:

Rated voltage Rated insulation level - Lightening impulse withstand voltage(1.2/250us) - One minute power frequency withstand voltage Rated frequency Rated normal current Rated short -circuit breaking current Rated short-circuit making current Rated short- circuit current duration Rated duty cycle

KV

420

KVp KV HZ A
KA

1425 520-610 50 3150 40 2.5 times rated short-circuit breaking current 3 O- 0.3sec-CO-3mins-CO

KA Sec

--

OPERATI

TI I

:

Closing time Opening time Arcing time Break time

ms ms ms Cycles

100 max 22 max 18 max 2

CONSTRUCTIONAL ETAILS:

The main parts of the SF6 circuit breaker are: Interrupt assembly Bell-crank mechanism Support insulator Hydraulic mechanism Control cabinet

ARC PHENOMENON:

When short circuit occurs, a heavy current flows through the contacts of the circuit breaker before they are opened by the protective system. At the instant when the contacts begin to separate, the contact area decreases rapidly and large fault currents causes increased current density and hence rise in temperature. The heat produced in the medium between contacts is sufficient to ionise the air or vaporize and ionise the oil. The ionised air or vapour acts as conductor and an arc is struck between the contacts. The p.d between the contacts is quite small and is just sufficient to maintain the arc. The arc provides a low resistance path and consequently the current in the circuit remains uninterrupted so long as the arc persists.

OPERATING PRINCIPLE:

CONCLUSION:

Thus in our presentation we are explained about basic introduction of circuit breaker, classification of circuit breakers depending upon different consideration, technical data , advantages of SF6 circuit breaker, constructional features circuit breaker, Arc phenomenon operating principle of SF6 circuit breaker and the process of arc extinction.

REFERENCES:

TEXT OOKS: 1.PRINCIPLES OF POWER SYSTEM - V.K.MEHTA ROHIT MEHTA 2.OPERATION & MAINTANCE OF SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER ± BHEL,HYD. WEBSITES: 1.WWW.GOOGLE.COM 2. WWW.BHEL.COM 3. WWW.ABB.COM.

THANK YOU

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