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# 3.

Elements
(8hours/16marks)

(2.1)
(2.2)

## System Assembly in Global Coordinates

Example:2.2
Figure 2.4a depicts a system of three linearly elastic springs
supporting three equal
weights W suspended in a vertical plane. Treating the springs as
finite elements, determine the vertical displacement of each
weight.

(1)

(2)

(3)

Example:2.3
Figure 2.5 depicts a system of three linear spring elements connected
as shown. The node and element numbers are as indicated. Node 1 is
fixed to prevent motion, and node 3 is given a specified displacement
as shown. Forces F2 = F and F4 = 2F are applied at nodes 2 and
4. Determine the displacement of each node and the force required
at node 3 for the specified conditions.
Boundar
y
conditio
ns???

Solve yourself

## 3.2.A . ELASTIC BAR,

SPAR/LINK/TRUSS ELEMENT
From

L,A,

Again
strain:

Interpolation(Shape) functions:
Spring/Bar/Truss Element
An elastic bar of length L is
affixed
a
uniaxial
coordinate system x having
origin at node 1. u(x) be
the axial displacement at
any position along
the
length
of
the
bar.
Continuous field variable
u(x) is to be expressed in
terms
of
two
nodal
variables u1 and u2 by
assuming
interpolation
function
N1(x) andN2(x)such
Nodal
displacements
that:
are:

## Which must be satisfied by the interpolation functions. As we

have two conditions that must be satisfied by each of two one
dimensional functions, the simplest forms for the interpolation
functions are polynomial forms:

## here the polynomial coefficients are to be determined via satisfaction of the

oundary(nodal) condition.
Application of conditions represented by Equation 2.19 yields
a0 = 1,
b0 = 0 while Equation 2.20 results in a1 = (1/L) and b1 =
1/L. Therefore,
the interpolation functions are

## and the continuous displacement function is represented by the discretization

ple:2.6 : Solve for the displacements and the reaction force at node 1 if
N/mm
k2 = 6 N/mm
k3 = 3 N/mm
F2 = 30 N
F3 = 0
F4 = 50 N

Solve yoursef:
For check

Example:2.7
P
(1)A1,E1,L1
A2,E2,L2

1
F1,F2,F3/U1,U2,U3

(2)

## 3.2.B. 2D-Truss Structure

(3.1a)
(3.1b)

(3.2a)
(3.2b)
(3.3a)
(3.3b)

(3.4a)
(3.4b)

Element Transformation

Direction Cosines

U4

j(Xj,Yj)

U3

U2

U1

i(Xi,Yj)
X

## EXAMPLE: For the bar element shown in Figure evaluate

the global stiffness matrix
with respect to the x-y
coordinate system. Let the bars cross-sectional area
equal to 6*10-4m2, length equal 1.2m, and modulus of
elasticity equal 2*1011 Pa. The angle the bar makes with
the x axis is 30.

STRESS

## EXAMPLE:For the bar shown in Figure 313, determine

the axial stress. Let A = 4* 10-4m2, E = 210 GPa, and L=
2 m, and let the angle between x and x be 60.
Assume the global displacements have been previously
determined to be d1x = 0.25 mm, d1y =0.0, d2x =0.50
mm, and d2y = 0.75 mm.

EXAMPLE:3.2
Adjoining example illustrate
following Points:
Direct Assembly of Global
Stiffness Matrix
Boundary Conditions,
Constraint Forces
Element Strain and Stress

U
6

U4
U3

U5

U2
U
1

C.3D-Truss

Hutton
Example:3.3

3.3/3.4.Beam/Frame(Flexure
Elements)

Undeformed layer
(Neutral axis,
corresponding to y=0) is
at distance from
center of curvature o.

## he length after bending at any position y is expressed as

Again, shear
force, f =

fu Sh
nc a
ti pe
on

2D Beam or Flexure:

## Here nodal variables are

the
transverse
displacements v1 and v2 at
the nodes and slopes /
rotations ( in radian ),1
and 2. Element coordinate
is chosen such that x1=0
and x2=L .

Considering the four boundary conditions and the onedimensional nature of the problem in terms of the independent
variable, we assume the displacement function in the form:

## Clearly, with the specification

of four boundary conditions,
we can determine no more
than four constants in the
assumed
displacement
function. Second, in view of
Equations 4.10 and 4.17, the
second
derivative
of
the
assumed
displacement
function v(x ) is linear; hence,
the bending moment varies
linearly, at most, along the
length of the element. This is in
accord with the assumption
that loads are applied only at
the
element
nodes,
as
indicated by the bending
moment diagram of a loaded
beam element shown in Figure
4.5. If a distributed load were
applied to the element across

## Solving above equations:

Substituting into
equation 4.17 :

## mplifying equation 4.26 ,

e now relate the nodal and beam theory sign conventions for shear forc
d bending moments:

Example:4.1(Hutton)

## The usual approach is to replace the

distributed load with nodal forces and
moments such that the mechanical work
done by the nodal load system is equivalent
to that done by the distributed load. Referring
to Figure 4.1,
the mechanical work
performed by the distributed load can be
The
objective
here is to
expressed
as:
determine the
equivalent nodal loads so that
the work
expressed in Equation 4.51 is
the same as:
where F1q , F2q are the equivalent forces at nodes 1 and 2,
respectively, and M1q and M2q are the equivalent nodal
moments. Substituting the discretized displacement function
given by Equation 4.27, the work integral becomes:

Comparison
of
Equations 4.52 and
4.53 shows that:

## Hence, the nodal force vector representing a distributed

load on the
basis of work equivalence is given by Equations 4.54
4.57. For example, for a uniform load q(x ) = q =
constant, integration of these equations yields:

Example:4.2,4.3(Hutton)

## Flexure element with axial loading(Planar Frame)

Example:4.4

Truss

Example:4.4(Hutton)

3-Dimensional Beam
Element

ASSIGNMENT

END OF CHAPTER :3