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3.Direct Stiffness Method: Discrete Finite Elements

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Elements

(8hours/16marks)

(2.1)

(2.2)

Example:2.2

Figure 2.4a depicts a system of three linearly elastic springs

supporting three equal

weights W suspended in a vertical plane. Treating the springs as

finite elements, determine the vertical displacement of each

weight.

(1)

(2)

(3)

Example:2.3

Figure 2.5 depicts a system of three linear spring elements connected

as shown. The node and element numbers are as indicated. Node 1 is

fixed to prevent motion, and node 3 is given a specified displacement

as shown. Forces F2 = F and F4 = 2F are applied at nodes 2 and

4. Determine the displacement of each node and the force required

at node 3 for the specified conditions.

Boundar

y

conditio

ns???

Solve yourself

SPAR/LINK/TRUSS ELEMENT

From

L,A,

Again

strain:

Interpolation(Shape) functions:

Spring/Bar/Truss Element

An elastic bar of length L is

affixed

a

uniaxial

coordinate system x having

origin at node 1. u(x) be

the axial displacement at

any position along

the

length

of

the

bar.

Continuous field variable

u(x) is to be expressed in

terms

of

two

nodal

variables u1 and u2 by

assuming

interpolation

function

N1(x) andN2(x)such

Nodal

displacements

that:

are:

have two conditions that must be satisfied by each of two one

dimensional functions, the simplest forms for the interpolation

functions are polynomial forms:

oundary(nodal) condition.

Application of conditions represented by Equation 2.19 yields

a0 = 1,

b0 = 0 while Equation 2.20 results in a1 = (1/L) and b1 =

1/L. Therefore,

the interpolation functions are

ple:2.6 : Solve for the displacements and the reaction force at node 1 if

N/mm

k2 = 6 N/mm

k3 = 3 N/mm

F2 = 30 N

F3 = 0

F4 = 50 N

Solve yoursef:

For check

Example:2.7

P

(1)A1,E1,L1

A2,E2,L2

1

F1,F2,F3/U1,U2,U3

(2)

(3.1a)

(3.1b)

(3.2a)

(3.2b)

(3.3a)

(3.3b)

(3.4a)

(3.4b)

Element Transformation

Direction Cosines

U4

j(Xj,Yj)

U3

U2

U1

i(Xi,Yj)

X

the global stiffness matrix

with respect to the x-y

coordinate system. Let the bars cross-sectional area

equal to 6*10-4m2, length equal 1.2m, and modulus of

elasticity equal 2*1011 Pa. The angle the bar makes with

the x axis is 30.

STRESS

the axial stress. Let A = 4* 10-4m2, E = 210 GPa, and L=

2 m, and let the angle between x and x be 60.

Assume the global displacements have been previously

determined to be d1x = 0.25 mm, d1y =0.0, d2x =0.50

mm, and d2y = 0.75 mm.

EXAMPLE:3.2

Adjoining example illustrate

following Points:

Direct Assembly of Global

Stiffness Matrix

Boundary Conditions,

Constraint Forces

Element Strain and Stress

U

6

U4

U3

U5

U2

U

1

C.3D-Truss

Hutton

Example:3.3

3.3/3.4.Beam/Frame(Flexure

Elements)

Undeformed layer

(Neutral axis,

corresponding to y=0) is

at distance from

center of curvature o.

Again, shear

force, f =

fu Sh

nc a

ti pe

on

2D Beam or Flexure:

the

transverse

displacements v1 and v2 at

the nodes and slopes /

rotations ( in radian ),1

and 2. Element coordinate

is chosen such that x1=0

and x2=L .

Considering the four boundary conditions and the onedimensional nature of the problem in terms of the independent

variable, we assume the displacement function in the form:

of four boundary conditions,

we can determine no more

than four constants in the

assumed

displacement

function. Second, in view of

Equations 4.10 and 4.17, the

second

derivative

of

the

assumed

displacement

function v(x ) is linear; hence,

the bending moment varies

linearly, at most, along the

length of the element. This is in

accord with the assumption

that loads are applied only at

the

element

nodes,

as

indicated by the bending

moment diagram of a loaded

beam element shown in Figure

4.5. If a distributed load were

applied to the element across

Substituting into

equation 4.17 :

e now relate the nodal and beam theory sign conventions for shear forc

d bending moments:

Example:4.1(Hutton)

distributed load with nodal forces and

moments such that the mechanical work

done by the nodal load system is equivalent

to that done by the distributed load. Referring

to Figure 4.1,

the mechanical work

performed by the distributed load can be

The

objective

here is to

expressed

as:

determine the

equivalent nodal loads so that

the work

expressed in Equation 4.51 is

the same as:

where F1q , F2q are the equivalent forces at nodes 1 and 2,

respectively, and M1q and M2q are the equivalent nodal

moments. Substituting the discretized displacement function

given by Equation 4.27, the work integral becomes:

Comparison

of

Equations 4.52 and

4.53 shows that:

load on the

basis of work equivalence is given by Equations 4.54

4.57. For example, for a uniform load q(x ) = q =

constant, integration of these equations yields:

Example:4.2,4.3(Hutton)

Example:4.4

Truss

Example:4.4(Hutton)

3-Dimensional Beam

Element

ASSIGNMENT

END OF CHAPTER :3

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