Training & Development

By Jayati Singh

We will cover«
KSAs & Competencies Training Process Training Methods Guidelines for Trainers

Knowledge defined
The fact or condition of knowing something with familiarity gained through experience or association : acquaintance with or understanding of a science, art, or technique : the fact or condition of being aware of something : the range of one's information or understanding

KSAs
1.

2.

3.

KNOWLEDGE Declarative knowledge: Person's store of factual information about a subject matter.(WHAT) Procedural Knowledge: is the person¶s understanding about how & when to apply the facts already learned. It assumes some degree of factual knowledge (HOW) Strategic Knowledge :The highest level of knowledge.This consists of the person¶s awareness of what he knows & the internal rules learned for assessing the relevant facts & procedures to be applied for achieving some goals

KSAs
SKILLS: The capacities needed to perform a set of tasks that are developed as a result of training and experience. A skill is a proficiency in doing something beyond just knowing it. ATTITUDES: are employee beliefs & opinions that support or inhibit behavior. So, in a training context we are concerned about employees attitudes in relation to their learning of training material & job performance. Important because they affect motivation.

KSAs
A primary purpose of KSAs is to measure those qualities that will set one candidate apart from the others Agencies may emphasize the most important aspects of a job by assigning relative weights to each KSA. Others will designate particular KSAs as being Mandatory (M) or Desirable (D). Obviously the job applicant will want to focus the most effort on responding to the more heavily weighted KSAs or the mandatory ones, but it is important to remember that you need to address every one on the list. If a vacancy announcement makes no distinction among the position¶s KSA, the applicant should assume that all KSAs are equally important.

Competencies
Is a broad grouping of knowledge, skills & attitudes that enable a person to be successful at a number of similar tasks.

Introduction
Training programs should be designed by trainers and/or learners to achieve certain overall goals for the learner As much as possible, learning objectives should also be written to be SMART (an acronym for Specific, Measurable, Acceptable to you, Realistic to achieve and Time-bound with a deadline

Employee Orientation Programs
Reduce newcomer stress Reduce start-up costs Reduce turnover Expedite proficiency Assist in newcomer assimilation Enhance adjustment to work group and norms Encourage positive attitude

Orientation Program Content
Information about company as a whole Job-specific information

How to plan an orientation program
When should I begin thinking about new employee orientation? Components of a welcome & orientation plan
Welcoming your new employee  Joining kit/documents  Employee Benefits Orientation  Orientation and Welcome to the unit of work  Specific topics covered in the Benefits 

Before Arrival
Pre Induction checklist
Set up an email account.  Set up a telephone and voice mail account.  Put the employee on payroll  Clean the office or work area where the employee will be assigned and provide basic supplies.  Confirm salary and hours of employment with new staff member.  Inform department staff and key clients of the employee¶s arrival date. 

Organizational Socialization
How employees adjust to a new organization What is at stake: 
Employee

satisfaction, commitment, and performance  Work group satisfaction and performance  Start-up costs for new employee  Likelihood of retention Replacement costs

First day of Employment
Welcome him/her upon arrival at the department. Introduce him/her to co-workers and subordinates. Give him/her a tour of the office space. Have the department head and other key managers in the office greet the new employee. Confirm that s/he has received an ID card and parking permit.

First day of Employment
Confirm the salary, pay schedule and check distribution procedures (including direct deposit) with the employee. Confirm hours of employment, time off and overtime policies (for non-exempt employees), and call-in procedures for unscheduled absences. Review holiday schedule and procedures for recording staff attendance.

Ongoing Activities
After the initial period of orientation and training, all employees have a need for ongoing feedback and development to encourage good performance and enable individuals to reach their potential. Supervisors should provide the following on an ongoing basis: 
 

Provide positive and negative performance feedback. Encourage participation in work teams and department activities that will help employees diversify and develop skills. Collaboratively develop objectives and expectations on an annual basis.

Company Information
Overview of company Key policies and procedures Mission statement Company goals and strategy Compensation, benefits, safety Employee relations Company facilities

Example: This is GE

Job-Specific Information
Department functions Job duties and responsibilities Polices, rules, and procedures Tour of department Introduction to departmental employees Introduction to work group

Orientation Roles
Supervisor 


Information source Guide for new employees Socialize into organization Help learn norms of the work group and organization

Coworkers 


Orientation and the HRD Staff
HRD staff designs and implements new employee orientation program HRD schedules participation by various level of management HRD staff evaluates orientation program and implements needed changes

Common Problems in Employee Orientation
Too much paperwork Information overload Information irrelevance Scare tactics Too much ³selling´ of the organization

Training Processes
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Need Analysis Phase Design Phase Development Phase Implementation Phase Evaluation Phase

Phase 1: Training Need Analysis (TNA)
Once Triggering event which is recognition of organization performance deficiency has occurred , the cause has to be determined Expected Performance ±Actual Performance = Performance Discrepancy TNA could be reactive or proactive

Phase 1: Training Need Analysis (TNA)
1. 2.

3.

NON Training Needs (No KSA Deficiency) Reward/Punishment incongruencies Inadequate or inappropriate feedback: Supervisors dislike giving negative feedback Obstacles in the system eg receiving material too late

Phase 1: Training Need Analysis (TNA)
Training is a reasonable solution when a performance deficit is caused by employees lack of KSA. Training is likely to be more successful when TNA is conducted as The appropriate KSAs reqd to do the job are identified The KSAs of the employees in that job are determined (person analysis) so only those needing training are trained Roadblocks to transfer of training are identified & removed

Phase 1: Training Need Analysis (TNA)
Context Analysis. An analysis of the business needs or other reasons the training is desired. The important questions being answered by this analysis are who decided that training should be conducted, why a training program is seen as the recommended solution to a business problem, what the history of the organization has been with regard to employee training and other management interventions. User Analysis. Analysis dealing with potential participants and instructors involved in the process. The important questions being answered by this analysis are who will receive the training and their level of existing knowledge on the subject, what is their learning style, and who will conduct the training.

Phase 1: Training Need Analysis (TNA)
Work analysis. Analysis of the tasks being performed. This is an analysis of the job and the requirements for performing the work. Also known as a task analysis or job analysis, this analysis seeks to specify the main duties and skill level required. This helps ensure that the training which is developed will include relevant links to the content of the job.

Phase 1: Training Need Analysis (TNA)
Content Analysis. Analysis of documents, laws, procedures used on the job. This analysis answers questions about what knowledge or information is used on this job. This information comes from manuals, documents, or regulations. It is important that the content of the training does not conflict or contradict job requirements. An experienced worker can assist (as a subject matter expert) in determining the appropriate content.

Phase 1: Training Need Analysis (TNA)
Training Suitability Analysis. Analysis of whether training is the desired solution. Training is one of several solutions to employment problems. However, it may not always be the best solution. It is important to determine if training will be effective in its usage. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Analysis of the return on investment (ROI) of training. Effective training results in a return of value to the organization that is greater than the initial investment to produce or administer the training.

Phase 1: Training Need Analysis (TNA) Techniques
Several basic Needs Assessment techniques include: direct observation questionnaires consultation with persons in key positions, and/or with specific knowledge review of relevant literature interviews focus groups tests records & report studies work samples

Phase 2 :Training Design
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Training needs to be designed given that: organizational constraints Time available Budget Type of trainees Their current KSA & motivation levels Homogeneity as a group

Examples to Convey Nature of WellWritten Learning Objectives
The topic of the learning objective is included in bolding and italics. Learning objectives are numbered directly below. Topic: Communication 1. explain four basic principles of communication (verbal and nonverbal) and active, empathetic listening. 2.outline four barriers and bridges to communication 3. list at least four ways communication skills which encourage staff involvement will help crate a positive work environment. Topic: Mentoring 1. explain basic job duties and standards from job description to staff 2. outline at least five specific learning goals with staff by comparing performance with job duties 3. develop a yearly plan with staff to accomplish learning needs, supervision plan and rewards

Influencing training are:
1. 2. 3. 4.

Personality: Positively influence An internal locus of control High Conscientiousness High Cognitive Ability High Self-efficacy Training Climate: When the training can be applied to the job its more effective

Training Methods
Formal :Historically training meant formal training. Off-the ±job such as classroom lectures, films, demonstrations, simulation exercises & programmed instruction. Instill preferred work behaviors & attitudes Informal: Now there is evidence that 70% of workplace learning is made up of informal training. On the job training includes job rotation, apprenticeships, understudy assignments & formal mentoring programs.

Training Methods
Primary drawback of informal training is that It disrupt the workplace

Training Methods
Lectures, discussions & demonstrations Computer based training (CBT) Games & Simulations On the job training (OJT)

CBT
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Benefits: Reduces trainee learning time Reduces cost of training Provides instructional consistency Affords privacy of learning Allows the trainee to master learning Is a safe method for learning hazardous tasks Increases access to training

CBT
Initial cost is substantial The software development typically requires a lag between when training need is identified &b completion of CBT program

Games & Simulations
Equipment Simulators to train airline pilots, maintenance workers Business Games In-Basket Technique ± It provides trainees with a log of written text or information and requests, such as memos, messages, and reports, which would be handled by manger, engineer, reporting officer, or administrator. Procedure of the In basket Technique In this technique, trainee is given some information about the role to be played such as, description, responsibilities, general context about the role. The trainee is then given the log of materials that make up the in-basket and asked to respond to materials within a particular time period. After all the trainees complete in-basket, a discussion with the trainer takes place.

Games & Simulations
Case studies simulate decision making situations that the trainees might find on the job. Case studies are written summaries of real-life business situations based upon data and research In reading a case study a picture of what has happened to a company over a period of time can be gained The study could include events such as organizational change and strategy decisions within an organization as well as outside factors and influences A case study can be a shortened, second hand version of a real-life situation Case studies enables students to appreciate and analyze real problems and events faced by people in business Case studies are used to illustrate theory studied in class and allow that theory to be applied

Games & Simulations
Role Play is an enactment of a scenario in which each participant is given a part to act out. Structured role play may even include a scripted dialogue. This is used to develop interpersonal skills Spontaneous Role plays are loosely constructed interactions .This focuses on attitude & is used to widen Arena & its impact on others rather than develop any skill

On The Job Training (OJT)
Training a person to learn a job while working at it . Every employee, from mailroom clerk to company president gets OJT OJT methods 
 

Coaching or understudy Job rotation Special assignments Inexpensive Immediate feedback

Advantages 


OJT
Job rotation 

Moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points. The trainee works directly with a senior manager or with the person he or she is to replace; the latter is responsible for the trainee¶s coaching.

Coaching/Understudy approach 

Steps in OJT
Step 1: Prepare the learner 
  

 

Put the learner at ease²relieve the tension. Explain why he or she is being taught. Create interest, encourage questions, find out what the learner already knows about this or other jobs. Explain the whole job and relate it to some job the worker already knows. Place the learner as close to the normal working position as possible. Familiarize the worker with equipment, materials, tools, and trade terms.

Step 2: Present the operation 
  



Explain quantity and quality requirements. Go through the job at the normal work pace. Go through the job at a slow pace several times, explaining each step. Between operations, explain the difficult parts, or those in which errors are likely to be made. Again go through the job at a slow pace several times; explain the key points. Have the learner explain the steps as you go through the job at a slow pace.

Step 3: Do a tryout
Have the learner go through the job several times, slowly, explaining each step to you. Correct mistakes and, if necessary, do some of the complicated steps the first few times. Run the job at the normal pace. Have the learner do the job, gradually building up skill and speed. As soon as the learner demonstrates ability to do the job, let the work begin, but don¶t abandon him or her.

Step 4: Follow up
Designate to whom the learner should go for help. Gradually decrease supervision, checking work from time to time against quality and quantity standards. Correct faulty work patterns before they become a habit. Show why the learned method is superior. Compliment good work; encourage the worker until he or she is able to meet the quality and quantity standards.

More Training Methods
Apprenticeship training 

A structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training. The majority of what employees learn on the job they learn through informal means of performing their jobs on a daily basis. Listing each job¶s basic tasks, along with key points, in order to provide step-by-step training for employees.

Informal learning 

Job instruction training (JIT) 

Distance and Internet-Based Training
Teletraining 

A trainer in a central location teaches groups of employees at remote locations via TV hookups. Interactively training employees who are geographically separated from each other²or from the trainer²via a combination of audio and visual equipment. Using the Internet or proprietary internal intranets to facilitate computer-based training.

Videoconferencing 

Training via the Internet 

Development & Implementation of training
One can use static or dynamic media Carefully choose the type pf training facility Credibility is gained through first impressions and experience Before implementation of a large training program it is important to have a dry run Deal with different trainees

Different Trainees
Quiet Trainee: to be encourages to become more involved Talkative Trainee :needs to be toned down Angry Trainee: simply doesn¶t want to be there , focus on how training will help them The comedian : these are a gift & a curse

Steve Martin of 'Influence at Work and co-author of Yes! 50 Secrets from the Science of Persuasion' gives us his top tips on engaging less motivated learners
Find out the individual's personal values and goals and show how the proposed training and development aligns to them. Start small and build ± look for small actions to help build their commitment to training such as offering taster workshops or talking to previous attendees. Point out the uniqueness of your training and what an individual stands to gain if they get involved, as well as what they will lose if they choose not to. Seek endorsements from recognised bodies so that your training and development programmes are seen as credible. Don't just rely on your own persuasiveness ± show examples of how others have benefited from your training.

Guidelines for Trainers
Planning/preparation checklist for facilitators List qualities of your best trainer/facilitator; identify your weak points and try and improve Work as a team and assign roles: presenter, facilitator, note-taker, logistics person, etc. Arrange for a suitable venue and ensure you have all visual materials, e.g., paper, pens, flipchart, etc, needed and check your audio-visual aids Ensure fieldwork dates convenient for people Prepare well and rehearse

Make the Learning Meaningful
At the start of training, provide a bird¶seye view of the material to be presented to facilitates learning. Use a variety of familiar examples. Organize the information so you can present it logically, and in meaningful units. Use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees. Use as many visual aids as possible.

Make Skills Transfer Easy
Maximize the similarity between the training situation and the work situation. Provide adequate practice. Label or identify each feature of the machine and/or step in the process. Direct the trainees¶ attention to important aspects of the job. Provide ³heads-up´ preparatory information that lets trainees know they might happen back on the job.

Motivate the Learner
People learn best by doing so provide as much realistic practice as possible. Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses Trainees learn best at their own pace. Create a perceived training need in the trainees¶ minds. The schedule is important too: The learning curve goes down late in the day, less than full day training is most effective.

Evaluation of training
Useful & important but not necessary at all times as it may be complex & costly We can identify five basic points at which we might take measurements, conduct assessments, or reach judgments Before Training During Training After Training or Before Entry (Reentry) In The Workplace Upon Exiting The Workplace

What Is Management Development?
Management development 

Any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. A process through which senior-level openings are planned for and eventually filled.
Anticipate management needs Review firm¶s management skills inventory Create replacement charts Begin management development

Succession planning 

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