This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**CHAPTER 9 : Water Treatment Process : Flocculation
**

CHAPTER 3: Environmental Microbiology

© SHAHRUL ISMAIL, DESc.

University College of Science and Technology Malaysia

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Menu

1) Introduction 2) Flocculation Theory 3) Flocculation Factors 4) Velocity Gradient 5) Flocculation Types

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Introduction

- Slow - Slow mixing process in which particles are brought into contact in order to promote their agglomeration. - Conversion factors simplify changing from one unit of measurement to another. - There are two conditions under which water is measured—water at rest and water in motion. Water at rest is measured in units of volume. Water in motion is measured in units of flow— unit of volume for a convenient time unit. It is important that the difference between a unit of volume and a unit of flow be kept in mind.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Flocculation

Agglomeration of destabilized particles into microfloc – second stage of floc growth Floc : Bulky floccules which can be settled Flocculant / Flocculant aid : Addition of another reagent promote the formation of the floc. Relies on turbulence Accomplished by gentle stirring Enhance sedimentation

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Flocculation

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Flocculation Theory

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Flocculation Factors

Factors affecting performance of flocculation process 1) pH i. Prominent factor ii. Optimum pH range iii. The type of colloid iv. Chemicals to adjust the pH of the water v. Trial and error testing

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Flocculation Factors – Con’d
**

2) Tank volume The volume of the tank is calculated using the following formula: V=Qt Where: V = volume Q = flow t = detention time

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Flocculation Factors – Con’d
**

3) Detention time Time required for a small amount of water to pass through a tank at a given flow rate. Mathematically, detention time is given by the following formula: t=V Q Where: t = detention time V = tank volume Q = flow

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Velocity Gradient

Velocity Gradient The velocity of water flowing through the flocculation basin must be within a very specific the floc. Measurement of the intensity of mixing in the chamber. Determines how much the water is agitated in the tank, Determines how much energy is used to operate the flocculator. range, designed to gently mix the water without breaking apart

**Where G = Velocity gradient P = Power input u = dynamic viscocity
**

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

V = Volume

Velocity Gradient

- Design parameter for flocculation is Gt (dimensionless number) - Where; G t Gt = velocity gradient, s-1 (20 – 75 s-1 ) = time, s (10 – 60 min) = 12 000 – 270 000 (unitless)

- High G values with Low t : Small and Dense flocs - Low G values with High t : Larger and Lighter flocs

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Flocculation - Mixers

- Vary from cylindrical to rectangular or cubical. - Mixed simply by water flowing around baffles, or with a variety of types of paddles, turbines, and propellers.

**Vertical-shaft, turbine-type impeller
**

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Horizontal-shaft paddle

Baffled Chamber Flocculator

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Flocculation - Types

TYPES

MECHANICAL DEVICES

HYDRAULIC METHODS

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Mechanical Devices

1) MECHANICAL DEVICES - Most often in small plants Advantages : i) Prevents water from rotating continuously in the same direction around the shaft ii) Low head loss Disadvantages : i) Low velocity around the shaft ii) High operation and maintenance cost

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Mechanical Design - Power
**

DESIGN DETAIL - POWER

Power = Force x Velocity P = F D x Vp

Where; P FD Vp = power input, Watt or Nm/s = drag force on paddles, N = velocity of paddles (velocity relative to the water), m/s

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Mechanical Design - Force
**

DESIGN DETAIL - FORCE

FD

= ½ C D A p V p2 p

Where; CD Ap p = coefficient of drag, 1.8 for flat blades = area of paddle blades, m2 = density of water, kg/m3 ( 998.2 kg/m3)

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Mechanical Design - Power
**

DESIGN DETAIL – POWER

THEREFORE; Overall Equation :

P

= G2 µ ∀

P = CD AP (Vp)3 p 2

**Where; G µ ∀ P = velocity gradient, s-1 = dynamic viscocity, Ns/m2 = volume of mixing tank, m3
**

power input, Watt or Nm/s

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT =

Head Loss

Measure of the reduction in the total head (sum of elevation head, velocity head and pressure head) of the fluid as it moves through a fluid system Present : i. ii. Friction between the fluid and the walls of the pipe; the Friction between adjacent fluid particles as they move relative to one another; iii. Turbulence caused whenever the flow is redirect or affected

Proportional to the length of pipe, the square of the fluid velocity

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Viscosity

Resistance of water to flow due to internal molecular forces. Related to the liquid's temperature.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Mechanical - Problems

A mechanical flocculator is used to treat 38000m3/day water with detention time 20 minutes. a) Design the dimension of the tank if L : W : d = 1 : 4 : 2 b) Find the power required when velocity gradient is 55s-1 and dynamic viscosity 1.002 x 10-3 N.s/m2 c) If the tank have 3 paddles and every paddle have 4 plate with relative velocity of paddles is 0.38 m/s and coefficient drag is 1.8, find the area of 1 plate. (Water density = 998.2 kg/m3)

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Mechanical - Problems

Solution : For a) Use volume tank formula to find each dimension of L, W, d For b) Find power, use formula that can fits all the information given For c) Use formula Power that fits all the information given

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Mechanical - Problems

Solution : a) ∀ = Qt = 38,000 m3/day x 20 mins = 527.8 m3. ∀ =LxWxd = 527.8m3 = 8L3 L3 L = 527.8 /8 = 4.04m W = 4 x 4.04 = 16.16m d = 8.08 m

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Mechanical - Problems

Solution : b) P = G2µ ∀ =(55)2 (1.002 x 10-3)(527.80) p = 1599.8 Watt. c) P = CD Ap (Vp)3 p 2 Ap = 1599.8 (2) (1.8) (0.38)3 (998.2) = 32.45 m2 So, area of 1 plate = 2.7 m2

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Hydraulic Flocculation

- Baffle types - Induce required velocity gradients for achieving floc formation Advantages : i) Simple to construct and operate ii) Less chance of short circuiting Disadvantages : i) Cannot be easily adjusted

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

ii) Increase head loss

**Hydraulic – Design Detail
**

1. Velocity in the channel : 10 – 30cm/s 2. Width of the channel : 45 cm 3. Depth of flow : > 1.0m 4. Detention time : 10 – 20 minutes 5. Loss of head : 15 – 60 cm

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Hydraulic – Design Detail
**

To design; 1) Tank volume, ∀ 2) Distance of flow, D 3) Cross Sectional Area between baffle, Ax 4) Depth of channel, d 5) Clear distance between baffle and the end of wall, Y 6) Effective length of each channel, Pe 7) No. of channel required for each compartment 8) Length and width basin, L & W

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Hydraulic – Design Formulas
**

1) Total volume, ∀ ∀=Qxt 2) Distance of flow, D D=txv 3) Cross Sectional Area between baffle, Ax Ax = ∀ / D 4) Depth of channel, d d = A / Distance between baffles

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Hydraulic – Design Formula
**

5) Clear distance between baffle and the end of wall, Y Y = 1.5 x Distance between baffles 6) Effective length of each channel, Pe Pe = Width of each compartment - Y 7) No. of channel required for each compartment,

No. of channel for total distance flow = D/ Pe So, for each compartment = No. of channel/ of total distance flow / total compartments

**8) Length and width basin, L & W
**

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Hydraulic – Design Formulas
**

1) Total volume, ∀ ∀ =Qxt = 20 x 106 L/day x 25 min x1 m3/1000L x day/1440 min = 347 m3 2) Distance of flow, D D=txv = 25min x 0.17 m/s x 60s /1 min 3) Cross Sectional Area between baffle, Ax

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Hydraulic – Design Formulas
**

3) Cross Sectional Area between baffle, Ax Ax = ∀ / D = 347m3 /255 m = 1.36 m2 4) Depth of channel, d d = Ax / Distance between baffles = 1.36 m2 / 0.75 m = 1.81m

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Hydraulic – Design Formula
**

5) Clear distance between baffle and the end of wall, Y Y = 1.5 x Distance between baffles = 1.5 x 0.75 = 1.125 m 6) Effective length of each channel, Pe Pe = Width of each compartment No. of channel for total distance flow = D/ Pe –Y

So, for each = 3m – 1.125m channel/ of total distance flow / total compartments compartment = No. of

= 1.875m

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Hydraulic – Design Formula
**

7) No. of channel required for each compartment, No. of channel for a total distance of flow = D/Pe = 255 m/1.875 = 136 channel

No. of channel for EACH compartment = 45.3 = 136 / 3

8) Length and width basin, L & W

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Hydraulic – Design Formula
**

8) Length and width basin, L & W Length = (135 x 0.75 m) + ( 135 x 0.075m) = 111.375m Width = 1.875 m

Check Volume = 111.375 x 1.875 x 1.81 = 380 m.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

Hydraulic – Problems

Design a baffle type basin of round the end type with the following data : Daily quantity of water to be treated Detention time Average velocity of flow Distance between baffles Thickness of each baffle 3 compartment, = 20 MLD = 25 min = 0.17 m/s = 0.75 m. = 0.075 m

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

**Hydraulic – Problem Solution
**

1) Calculate the tank volume, ∀

∀ = Qt = 20 x 106 L/day x 25 min = 260 m3

**2) Distance of flow, D D = tv = 25 min x 0.17 m/s =
**

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION…..

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT

- PGBM03 WEEK 1 Case Study Solutions
- McDonald's Case Study Notes
- Mandarin Reading Booklet III.pdf
- Mandarin Reading Booklet II.pdf
- Mandarin Reading Booklet I.pdf
- Chapter 2
- Chapter 1
- Bristol International Airport 2007 Operations Monitoring Report
- Noise monitoring report A380 v 747
- Airbus Orders and Deliveries (June 2010)
- The Ultimate World Cup Guide 2010
- World Cup 2010 Schedule (Malaysia Time) and Scoresheet (.xls)
- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (MSM3208) LECTURE NOTES 10-EIA, a Process
- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (MSM3208) LECTURE NOTES 9-Screening
- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (MSM3208) LECTURE NOTES 8-EIA Procedures for Small-Scale Activities
- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (MSM3208) LECTURE NOTES 7-Principles, Policy and Practice
- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (MSM3208) LECTURE NOTES 6-EIA Practices & Techniques
- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (MSM3208) LECTURE NOTES 5-Scoping Investigation
- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (MSM3208) LECTURE NOTES 4-Why Assess Environmental Impacts
- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (MSM3208) LECTURE NOTES 3-Methods Used to Assess Environmental Impacts
- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (MSM3208) LECTURE NOTES 2-Basic Concepts for Assessing Environmental Impacts
- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (MSM3208) LECTURE NOTES 1-What is EIA
- Jabatan Alam Sekitar :Panduan Keselamatan Dan Kesihatan Pekerja
- THERMODYNAMICS (TKJ3302) LECTURE NOTES -4 ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CLOSED SYSTEMS
- THERMODYNAMICS (TKJ3302) LECTURE NOTES -3 PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES

WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY (TAS 3010) LECTURE NOTES
UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA TERENGGANU 2009
Disclaimer: I don't own this file. If you believe you do, and you don't want it to be published here, please...

WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY (TAS 3010) LECTURE NOTES

UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA TERENGGANU 2009

Disclaimer: I don't own this file. If you believe you do, and you don't want it to be published here, please let me know. I will remove it immediately

UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA TERENGGANU 2009

Disclaimer: I don't own this file. If you believe you do, and you don't want it to be published here, please let me know. I will remove it immediately

- Treatment Plant Hydraulics 06
- Theoretical_design_of_sedimentation_basins
- 6815473 Waste Water Treatment System Design DOD 1997 Handbook
- clarifier_recirculation2
- Chapt4 Flocculation
- Sediment Tank Design Details_2
- WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY (TAS 3010) LECTURE NOTES 9c - Sedimentation
- WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY (TAS 3010) LECTURE NOTES 9a -Water Intake, Screening, Aeration, Coagulation
- Design of Sedimentation Tank
- Design of Water Treatment Plant
- Clarifier Manual
- raw water intake, screening, and aeration in water supply project
- Practical Hydraulics
- 9. Earthwork and Mass-Haul Diagram
- Waste Water Treatment Plants Planning Design and Operation Second Edition by Syed R Qasim - 5 Star Review
- Ship Stability, Basic Stability Definitions
- Data Sheet
- Rangesheet
- chap6exercpt
- Curcumin Qualitative Test
- Polytechnic Lecturers Notification
- 125
- PolyLecturers
- Lecturers
- Untitled
- Design Project B
- Solutions
- Mws Che Nle Phy Problem
- 54
- SPE-173330-MS
- WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY (TAS 3010) LECTURE NOTES 9b - Flocculation

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd