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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY

Relay Conference

Power Swings during Fault Conditions Blackout Analysis and Avoidance


Jrg Blumschein, 31 March 2015

Siemens AG 2015. All rights reserved.

Basics

I*XG

I*XL

I*XM

U G U M
sin( )
XG XL XM

P
Pmax

UA

PG=PM

UB

UG

UM

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

90

180

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Influence of voltage angle


Bus A in the electrical centre if:
XG = XL+XM

UG

UM
UB

UA
I*XG

P
Pmax
PM=PG

=120
I*XG

=60

I*XG
U
G
UG
=180
0
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90
Mar 2015

UG

XM

XL

XG

I*XL

I*XM

UB UM
I U I*XL
I*XM
A
I
I*XUM
UAI*XL UB
M
I

=120
=60
=180

UB

UM

UA=0

180
Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Typical impedance trajectory


Z( = 0)

= 40
normal load condition

= 120
dangerous for
distance protection
= 180
unstable power swing
out of step tripping

Zone Z1

Z( = 40)

Z( = 180)

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Z( = 120)

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Required characteristics for power swing detection


adaptiv - No settings required, no complex calculation needed
Detection of power swing with frequencies from 0,1Hz up to 10Hz
Detection of power swing that occur during single-pole open
condition and during faults
Immediate unblocking of distance protection on all kind of faults
occurring during power swing
Quick detection of reappeared power swing after fault clearance
Out-of-step tripping in case of unstable power swing

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Required characteristics for power swing detection


adaptiv - No settings required, no complex calculation needed
Detection of power swing with frequencies from 0,1Hz up to 10Hz
Stable Power Swing, low swing frequency: SynPen.cfg
Unstable Power Swing, high swing frequency: PS_Fast.cfg

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Required characteristics for power swing detection


adaptiv - No settings required, no complex calculation needed
Detection of power swing with frequencies from 0,1Hz up to 10Hz
Detection of power swing that occur during single-pole open
condition and during faults
Quick detection of reappeared power swing after fault clearance
Power Swing during open pole: Openpole.CFG

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Required characteristics for power swing detection


adaptiv - No settings required, no complex calculation needed
Detection of power swing with frequencies from 0,1Hz up to 10Hz
Detection of power swing that occur during single-pole open
condition and during faults
Immediate unblocking of distance protection on all kind of faults
occurring during power swing
Out-of-step tripping in case of unstable power swing
fault CN during Power Swing: L5FCN.CFG

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Principle of power swing detection


X

Continuous
calculation and
monitoring of
Impedances

Zone

First impedance in
power swing area:
algorithm starts to
analyze the
impedance trajectory

automatically sized
power swing area

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Main criteria for power swing detection

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

monotony criterion

X
X1
X2
X11
X2

X2
R2
R2
R2

R1

R1

power swing if
R1 and R2 and
or
X1 and X2
have
havesame
samedirection
directions
no power swing if
R1 and R2 and
X1 and X2 have
different directions

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

continuity criterion

power swing
if R or X
exceed a threshold

X
X

no power swing
if R and X are
below the threshold

R
R

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

smoothness criterion

X
X1
X1
R2
R2

R1X2

power swing if
R1 nearly R2
and X1 nearly X2

X
2 power swing if
no
R1 strong vary from R2 or
X1 strong vary from X2

R1
R

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

If three machines oscillating against each other

Impedance trajectory
will not follow a
perfect elliptical path
difficult to manage
with blinders

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

easy to detect with


criteria monotony,
continuity and
smoothness

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Impedance trajectories of 3-machine-power-swings


simulated by NETOMAC

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

test of 3-machine-power-swing using a traditional


network model

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Single line diagram of the North area of Peru


several generation units
are directly connected to
the electrical system
additional to this large
amounts of energy are
imported over long lines
A fault at the 60 kV side
caused a power swing at
the 220 kV system

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Impedance trajectory from a real power swing at


the North area of Peru
impedance trajectories
do not follow the typical
path of a two machine
power swing
impedance trajectories
enter the polygon moving
in X-direction only
after turning around in the
second quadrant the
impedance enters Zone 1
of the distance protection

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Test results applying the proposed method to a


real power swing at the North area of Peru
relay pickup in reverse
direction first

relay pickup in forward


direction later

no maltrip due to secure


power swing detection
for this three machine
power swing

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Impedance trajectory of a stable power swing


X
increasing speed
point of return
decreasing speed

Zone

Impedance is moving
into the polygon
Impedance nearly
stops at the point of
return
hard to distinguish
from a three phase
fault
Impedance is leaving
the polygon

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Necessity of power swing detection, example


don't
trip

D1

don't
trip

D2

3-phase-fault initiates
a power swing in the
transmission network

Transmission network
don't
trip

D3

don't
trip

D4

Relay 5

3-phase
fault

Power swing blocking


function prevents the
distance relays D1 ..
D4 from unselective
tripping

Distribution network
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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Impedance trajectory for Distance Relay D4


X

3-phase reverse fault:


Impedance vector
jumps to ZFault

Zone Z2
Zone Z1

ZLoad
R

ZFault

power swing blocking


prevents an unselective
trip, if the impedance
enters the tripping zone Z1

Zone
Zone Z3

Power swing
detection
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Mar 2015

power swing is initiated by


the reverse fault:
The impedance moves
on a circular trajectory

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Fault during power swing

internal fault L2-E


during power swing
power swing drops off for
faulty phase
single pole tripping is possible

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Load balance of the South system of Peru

the load area in the South of Peru was interconnected via the 220kV double
circuit line MantaroCotaruseSocabaya to the generation of the Central area
at the time of the event more than half of the load (456 MW) was imported
from the Central area
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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Description of the event

a lightning caused a simultaneous fault at the double circuit lines L-2053


and L-2054 connecting Cotaruse and Socabaya
the double phase to ground fault on line L-2054 was tripped 3 pole by the
line differential protection
the single phase to ground fault on Line L-2053 was tripped single pole by
the line differential protection
During the single pole dead time power swing arised
Siemens AG 2015
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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Division Energy Management

Description of the event:


Fault record of line L-2053
Due to the power swing the
impedance of the two healthy
phases moves into the zone
two of the distance protection
(see signal ZM02-START)
Power swing was not detected
by the relay PSD1-START
Zone two trip after T2 has
elapsed ZM02-TRIP
three pole trip of the line L-2053
TRIP L1, TRIP L2, TRIP L3
Losing both lines of the
transmission corridor the South
system of Peru collapsed into a
blackout
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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Directional move of impedance trajectories


during single pole open condition
During symmetrical power swings
all three impedance trajectories move
in the same direction

When power swings appear during


single pole open conditions, the
remaining two impedance trajectories
move in different directions

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Velocity of impedance trajectories


during single pole open condition
During symmetrical power swings
all three impedance trajectories
move with the same velocity
in R and X direction

When power swings appear during


single pole open conditions, the
remaining two impedance trajectories
move with different velocities.
The velocity in R direction is nearly the
same but the velocity in X direction
differs significantly
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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Symmetrical components during power swing


during single pole open condition
During symmetrical power swings
neither zero nor negative sequence
component are present
In this case zero or negative sequence
components are used to detect faults
during power swing:

I2 I0
m
I1

When power swings appear during


single pole open condition, both
zero and negative sequence component
are present

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Impedance trajectories during single pole dead


time on line L-2053
impedance trajectories for
phase B and phase C during
the single pole dead time in
phase A
impedances of phase B and
phase C move with different
speed on different trajectories
from the second quadrant
of the complex plane into the
zones of the distance protection
the impedance of phase B first
reaches zone 2 of the distance
protection

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Proper power swing detection during single pole


dead time on line L-2053
impedance of phase B first
reaches zone 2 of the distance
protection 21 Pickup B
50ms later the impedance of
phase C also reaches zone 2
of distance protection
21 Pickup C
distance protection is blocked
due to the phase selective
power swing detection (see
signals 68 P/Swing B and
68 P/Swing C
maltrip of distance protection
can be avoided
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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

conclusion

Because faults and power swings are related, it is important to detect


power swings that arise at fault condition or during single pole open
conditions.

Beside this it seems to be that real power swings sometimes differ


from the classical approach of the two machine model.

It was shown that the described algorithm is able to detect


unsymmetrical power swings and three machine power swings.

This approach is helpful to prevent further blackouts in the smart


grids of the future.

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Rotor angle and impedance trajectories for stable


and unstable power swing
distinguish between
stable and unstable
power swing
Trip only for
unstable out of step
condition
strong network: trip
as fast as possible
weak network: keep
the line in service
as long as possible

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Impedance trajectories of unstable power swings


UA > U B

X
1.2

1.25

1.3

EA 1.4
EB

1.5

1.6

position of circles
depends on the
ratio of voltages

1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0

=340
1.15

1.7

1.4

1.5

1.6

EA 1.3

1.25

1.2

EB

=0
2.5

1.1

=20
1.15
5.0

1.05

1.1
=335

1.05

0.95
50 45 40 35

0.9

30

=25

A
0.95
0.2
0.3

0.85

0.9
0.4
0.8

0.75

0.7

0.65

0.5

0.6

EA

EB

0.6

0.85
0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

direction of rotation
of the circles
depends on the
direction of load flow
the point of
intersection with the
line angle depends
on the position of
the electrical centre

UA < U B
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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Basic signals for out of step detection


1. power swing detected

2. impedance in out of
step area detected

Out of step area

3. impedance crosses
the line angle from
the right side

4. impedance leaves
power swing area
at opposite side after
complete crossing
5. impedance crosses
the line angle from
the left side

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

special out of step tripping logic

Individual out of step trip by logical combination of basic signals

Trip, if the impedance crosses the line angle 3 times inside the predefined area

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

special out of step tripping scheme


6. Trip, if the impedance
crosses the line angle
3 times inside the
predefined area

Out of step area


Trip
6

No Trip

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out of step protection


becomes a selective
function

Mar 2015

7. no trip, if the
impedance crosses
the line angle outside
the predefined
out of step area

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

conclusion
For the protection of the transmission systems of the future we
recommend a strong coordination of power swing detection, distance
protection and out of step protection.
This method, successfully used in Kazakhstan and Romania has the
following advantages:

distance protection for selective clearing of faults in the protected


zone

block distance protection in case of power swing

flexible out of step protection to split the grid selectively according


grid study

optimal coordination of distance protection and out of step protection


by using the same algorithm for power swing detection

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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

Thank you for your attention!


Email: joerg.blumschein@siemens.com

Weblink: http://www.siemens.com/siprotec
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Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management