You are on page 1of 39

# TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY

Relay Conference

## Power Swings during Fault Conditions Blackout Analysis and Avoidance

Jrg Blumschein, 31 March 2015

Basics

I*XG

I*XL

I*XM

U G U M
sin( )
XG XL XM

P
Pmax

UA

PG=PM

UB

UG

UM

Page 2

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

90

180

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Influence of voltage angle

Bus A in the electrical centre if:
XG = XL+XM

UG

UM
UB

UA
I*XG

P
Pmax
PM=PG

=120
I*XG

=60

I*XG
U
G
UG
=180
0
Page 3

90
Mar 2015

UG

XM

XL

XG

I*XL

I*XM

UB UM
I U I*XL
I*XM
A
I
I*XUM
UAI*XL UB
M
I

=120
=60
=180

UB

UM

UA=0

180
Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Typical impedance trajectory

Z( = 0)

= 40

= 120
dangerous for
distance protection
= 180
unstable power swing
out of step tripping

Zone Z1

Z( = 40)

Z( = 180)

Page 4

Z( = 120)

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Required characteristics for power swing detection

adaptiv - No settings required, no complex calculation needed
Detection of power swing with frequencies from 0,1Hz up to 10Hz
Detection of power swing that occur during single-pole open
condition and during faults
Immediate unblocking of distance protection on all kind of faults
occurring during power swing
Quick detection of reappeared power swing after fault clearance
Out-of-step tripping in case of unstable power swing

Page 5

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Required characteristics for power swing detection

adaptiv - No settings required, no complex calculation needed
Detection of power swing with frequencies from 0,1Hz up to 10Hz
Stable Power Swing, low swing frequency: SynPen.cfg
Unstable Power Swing, high swing frequency: PS_Fast.cfg

Page 6

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Required characteristics for power swing detection

adaptiv - No settings required, no complex calculation needed
Detection of power swing with frequencies from 0,1Hz up to 10Hz
Detection of power swing that occur during single-pole open
condition and during faults
Quick detection of reappeared power swing after fault clearance
Power Swing during open pole: Openpole.CFG

Page 7

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Required characteristics for power swing detection

adaptiv - No settings required, no complex calculation needed
Detection of power swing with frequencies from 0,1Hz up to 10Hz
Detection of power swing that occur during single-pole open
condition and during faults
Immediate unblocking of distance protection on all kind of faults
occurring during power swing
Out-of-step tripping in case of unstable power swing
fault CN during Power Swing: L5FCN.CFG

Page 8

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Principle of power swing detection

X

Continuous
calculation and
monitoring of
Impedances

Zone

First impedance in
power swing area:
algorithm starts to
analyze the
impedance trajectory

automatically sized
power swing area

Page 9

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Main criteria for power swing detection

Page 10

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

monotony criterion

X
X1
X2
X11
X2

X2
R2
R2
R2

R1

R1

power swing if
R1 and R2 and
or
X1 and X2
have
havesame
samedirection
directions
no power swing if
R1 and R2 and
X1 and X2 have
different directions

Page 11

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

continuity criterion

power swing
if R or X
exceed a threshold

X
X

no power swing
if R and X are
below the threshold

R
R

Page 12

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

smoothness criterion

X
X1
X1
R2
R2

R1X2

power swing if
R1 nearly R2
and X1 nearly X2

X
2 power swing if
no
R1 strong vary from R2 or
X1 strong vary from X2

R1
R

Page 13

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## If three machines oscillating against each other

Impedance trajectory
perfect elliptical path
difficult to manage
with blinders

Page 14

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

## easy to detect with

criteria monotony,
continuity and
smoothness

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Impedance trajectories of 3-machine-power-swings

simulated by NETOMAC

Page 15

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## test of 3-machine-power-swing using a traditional

network model

Page 16

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Single line diagram of the North area of Peru

several generation units
are directly connected to
the electrical system
amounts of energy are
imported over long lines
A fault at the 60 kV side
caused a power swing at
the 220 kV system

Page 17

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Impedance trajectory from a real power swing at

the North area of Peru
impedance trajectories
path of a two machine
power swing
impedance trajectories
enter the polygon moving
in X-direction only
after turning around in the
impedance enters Zone 1
of the distance protection

Page 18

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Test results applying the proposed method to a

real power swing at the North area of Peru
relay pickup in reverse
direction first

direction later

## no maltrip due to secure

power swing detection
for this three machine
power swing

Page 19

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Impedance trajectory of a stable power swing

X
increasing speed
point of return
decreasing speed

Zone

Impedance is moving
into the polygon
Impedance nearly
stops at the point of
return
hard to distinguish
from a three phase
fault
Impedance is leaving
the polygon

Page 20

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Necessity of power swing detection, example

don't
trip

D1

don't
trip

D2

3-phase-fault initiates
a power swing in the
transmission network

Transmission network
don't
trip

D3

don't
trip

D4

Relay 5

3-phase
fault

## Power swing blocking

function prevents the
distance relays D1 ..
D4 from unselective
tripping

Distribution network
Page 21

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

X

Impedance vector
jumps to ZFault

Zone Z2
Zone Z1

R

ZFault

## power swing blocking

prevents an unselective
trip, if the impedance
enters the tripping zone Z1

Zone
Zone Z3

Power swing
detection
Page 22

Mar 2015

## power swing is initiated by

the reverse fault:
The impedance moves
on a circular trajectory

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## internal fault L2-E

during power swing
power swing drops off for
faulty phase
single pole tripping is possible

Page 23

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Load balance of the South system of Peru

the load area in the South of Peru was interconnected via the 220kV double
circuit line MantaroCotaruseSocabaya to the generation of the Central area
at the time of the event more than half of the load (456 MW) was imported
from the Central area
Page 24

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## a lightning caused a simultaneous fault at the double circuit lines L-2053

and L-2054 connecting Cotaruse and Socabaya
the double phase to ground fault on line L-2054 was tripped 3 pole by the
line differential protection
the single phase to ground fault on Line L-2053 was tripped single pole by
the line differential protection
During the single pole dead time power swing arised
Siemens AG 2015
Page 25

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

## Description of the event:

Fault record of line L-2053
Due to the power swing the
impedance of the two healthy
phases moves into the zone
two of the distance protection
(see signal ZM02-START)
Power swing was not detected
by the relay PSD1-START
Zone two trip after T2 has
elapsed ZM02-TRIP
three pole trip of the line L-2053
TRIP L1, TRIP L2, TRIP L3
Losing both lines of the
transmission corridor the South
system of Peru collapsed into a
blackout
Page 26

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Directional move of impedance trajectories

during single pole open condition
During symmetrical power swings
all three impedance trajectories move
in the same direction

## When power swings appear during

single pole open conditions, the
remaining two impedance trajectories
move in different directions

Page 27

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Velocity of impedance trajectories

during single pole open condition
During symmetrical power swings
all three impedance trajectories
move with the same velocity
in R and X direction

## When power swings appear during

single pole open conditions, the
remaining two impedance trajectories
move with different velocities.
The velocity in R direction is nearly the
same but the velocity in X direction
differs significantly
Page 28

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Symmetrical components during power swing

during single pole open condition
During symmetrical power swings
neither zero nor negative sequence
component are present
In this case zero or negative sequence
components are used to detect faults
during power swing:

I2 I0
m
I1

## When power swings appear during

single pole open condition, both
zero and negative sequence component
are present

Page 29

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Impedance trajectories during single pole dead

time on line L-2053
impedance trajectories for
phase B and phase C during
the single pole dead time in
phase A
impedances of phase B and
phase C move with different
speed on different trajectories
of the complex plane into the
zones of the distance protection
the impedance of phase B first
reaches zone 2 of the distance
protection

Page 30

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Proper power swing detection during single pole

impedance of phase B first
reaches zone 2 of the distance
protection 21 Pickup B
50ms later the impedance of
phase C also reaches zone 2
of distance protection
21 Pickup C
distance protection is blocked
due to the phase selective
power swing detection (see
signals 68 P/Swing B and
68 P/Swing C
maltrip of distance protection
can be avoided
Page 31

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

conclusion

## Because faults and power swings are related, it is important to detect

power swings that arise at fault condition or during single pole open
conditions.

## Beside this it seems to be that real power swings sometimes differ

from the classical approach of the two machine model.

## It was shown that the described algorithm is able to detect

unsymmetrical power swings and three machine power swings.

## This approach is helpful to prevent further blackouts in the smart

grids of the future.

Page 32

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Rotor angle and impedance trajectories for stable

and unstable power swing
distinguish between
stable and unstable
power swing
Trip only for
unstable out of step
condition
strong network: trip
as fast as possible
weak network: keep
the line in service
as long as possible

Page 33

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Impedance trajectories of unstable power swings

UA > U B

X
1.2

1.25

1.3

EA 1.4
EB

1.5

1.6

position of circles
depends on the
ratio of voltages

1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0

=340
1.15

1.7

1.4

1.5

1.6

EA 1.3

1.25

1.2

EB

=0
2.5

1.1

=20
1.15
5.0

1.05

1.1
=335

1.05

0.95
50 45 40 35

0.9

30

=25

A
0.95
0.2
0.3

0.85

0.9
0.4
0.8

0.75

0.7

0.65

0.5

0.6

EA

EB

0.6

0.85
0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

direction of rotation
of the circles
depends on the
the point of
intersection with the
line angle depends
on the position of
the electrical centre

UA < U B
Page 34

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Basic signals for out of step detection

1. power swing detected

2. impedance in out of
step area detected

## Out of step area

3. impedance crosses
the line angle from
the right side

4. impedance leaves
power swing area
at opposite side after
complete crossing
5. impedance crosses
the line angle from
the left side

Page 35

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Individual out of step trip by logical combination of basic signals

Trip, if the impedance crosses the line angle 3 times inside the predefined area

Page 36

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## special out of step tripping scheme

6. Trip, if the impedance
crosses the line angle
3 times inside the
predefined area

Trip
6

No Trip

Page 37

## out of step protection

becomes a selective
function

Mar 2015

7. no trip, if the
impedance crosses
the line angle outside
the predefined
out of step area

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

conclusion
For the protection of the transmission systems of the future we
recommend a strong coordination of power swing detection, distance
protection and out of step protection.
This method, successfully used in Kazakhstan and Romania has the

zone

grid study

## optimal coordination of distance protection and out of step protection

by using the same algorithm for power swing detection

Page 38

Mar 2015

Jrg Blumschein

Siemens AG 2015
Division Energy Management

## Thank you for your attention!

Email: joerg.blumschein@siemens.com