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Common Pasture Weeds

One annual grass

Six Biennial broadleaf weeds

Six perennial broadleaf weeds


Yellow Foxtail

We’ve seen
this before

An increasing
problem in
pastures
Yellow Foxtail

Long hairs at
base of blade
and yellowish
seedhead
Wild Parsnip

Wild parsnip
infestation
Wild Parsnip

Wild parsnip
plant
Wild Parsnip

Rosette
leaves
large, erect
Wild Parsnip

Leaves deeply
lobed:
pinnately
compound

Leaflets often
mitten-shaped

Petioles clasp
stems
Wild Parsnip

Flowers yellow
and in clusters
called umbels
Wild parsnip

Here’s why it’s


an umbel
Wild parsnip

Seeds in pairs

Many per plant


Burdock

Some 2-year
old plants

and some 1-
year old plants
Burdock

All biennials
start from
seeds
Burdock

Burdock
young plant
Burdock

Burdock
rosette

Leaves large
with heart-
shaped base
Burdock

Leaves dark
green on top;
light green &
woolly below
Burdock

Stems to over
6 feet tall and
wide

Branched,
grooved and
hollow
Burdock

Flower heads
of pinkish to
red-violet disc
flowers
Burdock

Each fruit
covered with
hooked spines
(bracts) that
form the bur
Burdock is a common pasture weed
Maybe it should be called…..

Bird Dock Bat Dock


Burdock

At teddy bur!!
Musk thistle

Musk thistle
plant
Musk thistle

Musk thistle
rosette
Musk thistle

Leaves smooth,
with grey-green
margin

White, prominent
midrib
Musk thistle

No hairs on
bottom side
of leaf
Musk thistle

Stem spiny
except right
below flower
head
Musk thistle

Inflorescence
1.5 to 2”
across

Often tip
downward:
nodding
thistle
Musk thistle

White biotype
found in one
location
Plumeless thistle

Plumeless
thistle plant
Plumeless thistle

Plumeless
thistle taking
over a
fence line
Plumeless thistle

Plumeless
thistle rosette
Plumeless thistle

Leaves
deeply
divided

Hairy
especially
the lower
surface
midrib
Plumeless thistle

From rosette
to bolting
Plumeless thistle

Stems spiny from


base to tip

Inflorescence .75 to
1.5” across; pinkish
Plumeless thistle

Plumeless on
left

Musk on right
Plumeless thistle

A rare
biotype:
white
flowers
Bull thistle

Bull thistle
seedling

Leaves look
old early on
Bull thistle

Leaves deeply
cut, with a
wrinkled, gray-
green surface

Spines
particularly
needle-like
Bull thistle

Stem appears
spiny:
decurrent
leaves (run
down along
stem)
Bull thistle

Inflorescence
1-2” across,
flask-shaped
Bull and Musk thistle

Bull on left

Musk on right
Bull thistle

Mature bull
thistle
releasing fluff
Spotted Knapweed

Another biennial
(or short lived
perennial

Loves sandy soil


Prolific seed
producer

Inhibits growth of
other plants
Spotted Knapweed

Leaves up to
6” long and
deeply lobed
gray-green;

Surface
rough/hairy
Spotted Knapweed

Stems
rough-
surfaced and
branched
Spotted Knapweed

Flower heads
with pink to
purple disc
flowers

up to 200/plant
Spotted Knapweed

Bracts at base
of flower
heads with
fringed black
spots

Give plant it’s


name
Spotted Knapweed

Flowers very
pretty
Curly dock

Not just a
pasture weed!
Curly dock

Taproot fleshy
and yellowish
Curly dock

Ochrea at leaf
axils
Curly dock

Ochrea long
and prominent
Curly dock

Basal leaves 6
to 12” long
with wavy
edges

Stems
smooth, erect
reddish
Curly dock

Seed head
easily
recognizable

Attractive
seed heads
Giant chickweed

Leaves hairy,
pointed;
relatively large
for a
chickweed
Giant chickweed

Perennial with
fiborous roots

Also roots at
nodes
Giant chickweed

Stems 6 to 24”
long; hairy
and angled
Giant chickweed

Flowers ½”
wide; 5 deeply
notched white
petals
Giant chickweed

Fruits globular
and nodding
with sticky
hairs on the
flower stalks
Leafy spurge
Leafy spurge

Roots deep
and spreading
Leafy spurge

Roots deep
and spreading

Buds in crown
region
Leafy spurge

Milky sap in all


plant parts
Leafy spurge

Small flowers
borne above
greenish-
yellow bracts
Leafy spurge

Fruits with 3
seeds;
explode when
ripe

Shoots seeds
from parent
plant
Common milkweed

Milkweed
infestation
Common milkweed

Milky sap in all


plant parts
Common milkweed

Leaves thick,
oblong
opposite,
rounded tips

Prominent
viens
Common milkweed

Roots deep
and branched
Common milkweed

Milkweed and
dogbane

Hemp dogbane Common Milkweed


Common milkweed

Flowers pink
to white

In large ball-
like clusters
Common milkweed

Pods 3-4
inches long;
soft-spined
Common milkweed

Seeds with
silky pappus

Float great
distances
Horsenettle

Spreads by
creeping roots
& seeds
Horsenettle

Leaves
alternate

Spiney,
especially on
midrib below

Oblong, with
wavy edges;
Horsenettle

Stem with
stout sharp
spines

simple or
branched
Horsenettle

Flowers
potato-like

Petals white-
bluish; 5-lobed
in clusters

Prominent
anthers
Horsenettle

Fruits green,
smooth, juicy
berries

berries in
clusters
Horsenettle

Berries
become
yellow
Horsenettle

Berries
become
yellow and
wrinkled

Hang on
plants most
of winter
Canada thistle

Canada
thistle
infestation
Canada thistle

And here’s
what we
don’t
normally see
Canada thistle

Creeping roots
are deep and
branched;
grown in
patches
Canada thistle

Flower heads
up to ¾” wide;
flask-shaped;
flowers pink-
purple
Canada thistle

Canada
thistle fluff
Canada thistle

Canada thistle
seed
~End of Pasture Weeds~