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Understanding Media

and Information
Literacy (MIL)
Dr. Alice Y. L. Lee
Hong Kong Baptist University
(November, 2015)

What

is MIL?
Why do we need MIL?
Other literacy concepts
Conceptualizing MIL
Challenges, debates & future development

What is Media and


Information Literacy?

A Compound Concept
Media

and Information Literacy (MIL) is a


compound concept

MIL

= Media Literacy + Information Literacy +


ICT skills

ML, IL and ICT Skills

Media Literacy (ML):

Information Literacy (IL):

The ability to access, understand, evaluate, use and create media messages
in a variety of formats
A set of abilities requiring individuals to recognize when information is
needed and have the ability to access, evaluate and use information from a
variety of sources

Information and Communications Technology


Skills (ICT Skills):

The ability to use digital technology, communication tools and/or networks


appropriately to solve information problems in order to function in an
information society

Definition
MIL

is the ability to access, evaluate/


understand, and use/create media and
information in various forms in a critical and
effective way (involves a set of
competencies)
Not only deal with media messages, but all
kinds of information

media-and-information-literate person
should be able to handle messages coming
from different sources
e.g. mass media, Internet, social media,
Libraries, museums, archives, databases

The Components of MIL


Three Components
1.Access/ Retrieval of Media and Information
2.Evaluation/ Understanding of Media and
Information
3.Use/Communication/Create Media and
Information

Why Do We Need MIL?

Three Major World Trends


Revolutionary

Development of ICTs
Transition to knowledge societies
New learning mode of the Net Generation

1. Communication Revolutions
Infomedia Revolution

1990s
Integrated media technology with computer
technology

Web 1.0 (Read Only Web)


Websites
Online

media (online newspapers)


Video on demand
Digial broadcasting
IPTV

Web 2.0 (Read-write Web)


We Media:
Citizen journalism
sites
Blogs
Wikis
Social networks (e.g.
Facebook, MySpace,
Google+)

Social bookmarking
sites (e.g. Delicious)
Microblogging services
(e.g. Twitter, Weibo)
Media sharing sites
(e.g. Podcasting,
photo-sharing sites
such as Flickr, video
sharing services such
as YouTube)

Web 3.0 (Read-write-execute


Web)
1. Networking Computing
2. World Wide Database
3. The Intelligent Web
The computer can understand your request
4. Intelligent Applications
Through artificial intelligence, the computer
can sort
out useful suggestion/solution for you from
the
database
5. Wireless Access
iPhone, iPad, tablet

Web 3.0 and Beyond


Semantic Web
Cloud computing
Mobile technologies:
Smartphones and apps
(location-based services
with GPS)
Social network sites as
platforms
HTML5
Big data

The Internet of things


Artificial intelligence
applications
Robotics
Virtual avitars
New gadgets;

Inexpensive and small size


tablets & smart phones,
wearable computing devices,
iTV, smart vehicles, memory
machines, e-reading devices

ICT-Based Networked Society


People

are networked individuals


They live a media life

New developments post a


number of challenges to
media and information users

The Challenges of the New


Technologies
Master

the ICT skills


How to handle the influences of digital media
& social media
How to deconstruct the huge amount of
information from different channels

How

to constructively use the communication


power
How to tackle online security issues (e.g.
online shopping, cyber bullying, invasion of
privacy, copyright)
How to overcome digital divide

Media

literacy or information literacy alone is


not enough to equip people to deal with the
huge volume of media messages and
information from different communication
platforms

People

need MIL to maintain critical and


reflective autonomy

2.The Transition to Knowledge


Society

Industrial society knowledge society

Most of the population: knowledge workers


Information as means of production

2005 UNESCO: Towards Knowledge Societies


The important role of knowledge in building
more capable communities

(1) Human Resources


The reception, production and
transmission of information/knowledge
are essential in social, economic,
political and cultural sectors

cultivate a media-and-informationliterate population becomes essential for


the development of a society

Knowledge economy: competent


knowledge workers

(2) Desirable Knowledge Society


UNESCOs Mandate on knowledge societies
Knowledge

societies: Equitable, pluralistic,


inclusive and participatory
Based on four major principles:

Equal access to quality education for all


Universal access to information
Cultural and linguistic diversity
Freedom of expression

It

is expected that citizens in knowledge


society can access, utilize, create , and share
information and knowledge
Aim: to achieve their full potential in
promoting their sustainable development and
improving their quality of life.

Media

and information are vital for engaging


people in the democratic process, building
communities and strengthening civil society

MIL:

A pre-requisite for individuals to exercise


their freedom to access information

(3) Digital Use Divide

Digital divide

Low income family;


minorities; people in
developing countries

Physical access has


been improved

Digital use divide

Future

knowledge workers should have the


ability to not only acquire information, but
also transform it into knowledge that
empowers them to improve their livelihoods
and contribute to the social and economic
development of their society

3. Changing Learning Mode

Agricultural society

Learned from their


parents and
community members

Industrial society

Learned in schools

Knowledge society

not book learning


distant learning, schools with no physical buildings
learn through networked communication technologies
(social media, databases, online archives) in the
mobile environment
life-long learning, adult and kids learn together,
yesterdays knowledge becomes irrelevant

Sweden: School without Classroom

Two

knowledge systems:

Schools
Mass media and other information platforms

Ben

Williamson Future Curriculum

a wikiworld of learning
curriculum is not seen as a core canon or central body of
content
but is seen as hyperlinked with networked
digital media, popular culture, and everyday
interactions

The

future of schooling will be a network-based


distributed system of learning
MIL is essential for life-long learning

Other Literacy Concepts

The Changing Concept of


Literacy

Literacy concepts in the past decades:


Traditional

literacy
Visual literacy
Media literacy
Information literacy

Flourishing Literacy
Frameworks in the New Age
Stand-alone Literacy
Concepts
Computer

literacy
ICT literacy
Internet literacy
New media literacy
Cyber literacy

Digital literacy
Electronic literacy
Mobile literacy
Information fluency

Digital

literacy is a very popular concept


Gilster (1997): the ability to understand and
use information in multiple formats from a
wide range of sources when it is presented
via computers
IITE (2011): the use of social Web
applications, ecosystems of participation that
enable collaborative knowledge construction
and creativity

Compound Literacy
Concepts
Multiliteracies

Transliteracies

Metaliteracies
New

literacies

Digital and media literacy


Media and information
literacy
21st century
competencies

Digital

and Media Literacy

media literacy + digital literacy

An expanded notion of what it means to be media literate,


which now includes an appreciation of individuals as both
producers and consumers of media content and an
understanding of the resulting social and cultural shifts that
take place because of this. As a result, competencies for
media literacy now include a variety of critical thinking,
communication and information management skills that
reflect the demands and reality of digital culture.

Conceptual Competencies

Practical Competencies

Human Competencies

Conceptualizing MIL

Table 1: MIL Component One Access of Media and


Information

Access

Attention
Management

Access/ Retrieval of Media and


Information
- ICT skills: the technical skills needed
to use digital technologies and social
media
- Information search skills
- Aggregation and curation skills
- Transmedia navigation skills
- Goal awareness: keep track of the
goal and focus on highest priority
- Mindful use of the social media:
distraction resistance and time
consciousness

Table 2: MIL Component Two Evaluation and Understanding of


Media and Information
Understanding

Evaluation and
Assessment

Evaluation/ Understanding of Media and Information


Recognizes the impacts of media and information on individual and
society
Recognizes that media and information have social, economic, political
and cultural implications
Understands the format, institution and audience of media and information
Appreciates media and information content and format in an aesthetic way

Evaluates relevancy, currency, reliability, completeness, accuracy and


quality of media and information
Questions in what ways socio-cultural context, political forces, ownership,
professional routines, regulations and technologies shape media and
information content
Critical thinking skill
Transdisciplinary and systemic analytical skill: multiple perspective and
ability to make connections between ideas
Cognitive load management: ability to discriminate and filter information
for importance
Verification and triangulation skill (particularly for rumor)
Photo-visual skill

Knowledge management
Art of abandonment

Organization and
Synthesis

Table 3: MIL Component Three Use and Create Media and


Information

Communication,
Use and
Participation

Creation and
Problem Solving

Monitoring and
Influence

Use/Communication/Create Media and


Information
Networked communication skills: effective
communication and information sharing
Virtual community management
Crowdsourcing techniques
Virtual partnership building
Network smart: understand network structure and
boundaries
Online relationship enhancement and networking
building
Reflective thinking skill
Ethical use of media and information
Awareness of ones digital footprints
Privacy and security practice
Information application in everyday life
Be aware of invisible audiences
Reputation management
-

Media and information production skills


Creativity and design mindset
Innovative problem solving skill
Collaboration skill: collective knowledge construction
Spreadability intelligence
Criticism and monitoring of media and information
Interacting with bodies that regulate media and

Challenges, Debates
and Future
Development

Media Literacy VS Information


Literacy
Need further cooperation of the two fields
They are two separate fields but complementary

Information literacy as an umbrella concept which covers


media literacy
Information literacy sees media education as a subset of its
broader tenets
Media literacy conceptualizes information as a subcategory
of its broader spectrum of concerns
Information literacy is considered a part of media literacy
and serving as useful tool.

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
6
6
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16

Top Authors in Information Literacy and Media Literacy


Information Literacy
Media Literacy
Author
N
Rank
Author
Julien, H*
* Only appear in this area.
Pinto, M*
Bruce, C*
Lloyd, A*
Badke, W*
Fourie, I*
Majid, S*
Oakleaf, M*
Arp, L*
Crawford, J*
Foo, S*
Kwon, N*
Millet, MS*
Mokhtar, IA*
Walter, S*
Bawden, D*
Gross, M*
Koltay, T
Limberg, L*
Sales, D*
Saunders, L*
Sundin, O*
Webber, S*
Woodard, BS*

23
16
14
11
9
8
8
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

1
2
3
4
5
5
7
7
7
7
7
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

Primack, BA*
Hobbs, R*
Austin, EW*
Pinkleton, BE*
Wade, TD*
Wilksch, SM*
Brown, JD*
Cohen, M*
Fine, MJ*
Land, SR*
Potter, WJ*
Chen, YC*
Christ, WG*
Gold, MA*
Greene, K*
Kesten, A*
Kupersmidt, JB*
Livingstone, S*
Page, RM*
Raich, RM*
Scull, TM*
Strasburger, VC*
Trier, J*
Tyner, K*

N
12
11
10
6
5
5
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

Rank
1

Top Journals Publishing Articles in Information Literacy and Media Literacy


Information Literacy
Media Literacy
Journal
N
Rank
Journal

Journal of Academic
Librarianship*
Portal Libraries and the
Academy*
College Research Libraries*

121

Comunicar*

37

66

24

62

American Behavioral
Scientist*
Journal of Communication*

Reference User Services


Quarterly*
Journal of Librarianship and
Information Science
Library Trends
Electronic Library*

42

14

40

40
38

6
6

Information Research An
International Electronic
Journal*
Libri
Journal of Documentation*

35

Journal of Adolescent Adult


Literacy*
Journal of Popular Film and
Television*
Health Communication*
Journal of Adolescent
Health*
Journal of Broadcasting
and Electronic Media*

35
33

9
10

6
5

11

Program Electronic Library


and Information Systems*

29

10

Pediatrics*
Journal of Health
Communication*
Journal of School Health*

12

Health Information and


Libraries Journal*

27

10

Journalism and Mass


Communication Quarterly*

12

Library Information Science


Research*

27

10

Media Psychology*

3
4

5
7

8
10

15

9
7
7
7

MIL Assessment Framework


MIL

Indicators

MIL

indicators as a yardstick for Member States


to measure MIL (at national and individual level)
and to monitor the extent to which their citizens
are able to participate in knowledge societies
MIL assessment framework urges a
government to put more educational resources
on MIL training
Challenge: different cultural and social context

Curriculum Space
How

to get MIL into the school curriculum?


How to have MIL training in the community?

The Long Revolution


Raymond

Williams (1961)

Democratic revolution
Industrial revolution
Cultural revolution

Education and literacy training


We must certainly see the aspiration to extend the
active process of learning, with the skills of literacy and
other advanced communication, to all people rather than
to limited people, as comparable in importance to the
growth of democracy and the rise of scientific industry.

MIL

Education for All


Information for All

Full

To

Participation in Knowledge Societies

build a people-centered, inclusive and


development-oriented knowledge society,
where everyone can create, access, utilize and
share information and knowledge.

Thank You!
alicelee@hkbu.edu.hk