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What is Motivation?
• Motivation is derived from the word motive. “A
motive is an inner state that energies, activates or
moves and directs or channels behaviour towards


• Need : Need is deficiency. Needs are created
whenever there is a physiological or psychological
• Drive:
Drive is a deficiency with direction. They
are action- oriented and provide an emerging thrust
towards goal accomplishment.

Incentives : Incentive is anything that will
alleviate a need to reduce a drive.

• It converts potentialities into performance • Increase in productivity • Human resources development • Proper utilization of human Resources. • Optimum utilisation of other resources • Builds congenial industrial relations • Basis for cooperation .Significance of Motivation • Motivation Identifies employee Potentialities.

Nature of Motivation • • • • Motivation is Continuous process Motivation is a Psychological concept The entire individual is motivated Frustrated individual fails to be motivated. • Goals lead to motivated • The self-concept as a unifying force .

Types of Motivation • Positive Motivation or Pull Mechanism • Negative Motivation or Push – Mechanism .

MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Achievement Status Friendship Stability Sustenance SelfActualization Needs Esteem Needs Belongingness Needs Security Needs Physiological Needs Challenging job Job title Friends in Work Group Pension Plan Base Salary .

.Douglas Mcgregor’s Theory Douglas Mcgregor. a professor of industrial Administration at MIT (USA) theorized that every person has certain basic assumptions about other people’s attitude towards work and organisation the assumption is labeled as Theory X and Theory Y.

. controlled. have relatively little ambition.Theory X Assumptions It is the traditional assumptions about the nature of people and states that1. and want security above all. wish to avoid responsibility. 2. Average human beings prefer to be directed. Average human being have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can. most people must be coerced. directed and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organisational objectives. 3. Because of this human characteristic of disliking work.

People will exercise self direction and self control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.Theory Y Assumptions The assumption under this are: 1. The expenditure of physical effort and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. Average human beings learn. not only to accept responsibility but also to seek it. 2. under proper conditions. 3. 4. . The degree of commitment to objectives is in proportion to the size of the rewards associated with their achievement. External control and threat of punishment are not the only means for producing effort toward organizational objectives.

Herzberg’s .Two factor Theory Maintenance Factors or Dissatisfies or Hygiene Factors Motivational Factors or Satisfiers • Job Context • Extrinsic Factors • Company Policy and Administration • Quality of Supervisors • Work Conditions • Pay • Peer Relations • Pension Life • Relation s with subordinates • Status • Job Security • • • • • • • • Job Content Intrinsic Factors Achievement Recognition Work Itself Responsibility Advancement Possibility of Growth .

Herzberg’s . He conducted a widely reported study of about 200 accountants and engineers from eleven industries in the Pittsburgh area. He used the critical incident method of obtaining data for analysis. He asked them two questions: a) When did you feel particularly good about your job and what turned you on? b)b) When did you feel exceptionally bad about your job and what turned you off? .Two factor Theory Fredrick Herzberg (1959) extended the work of Maslow and developed a specific content theory of work motivation.

CONTARSTING VIEW OF SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION TRADITIONAL VIEW Satisfaction Dissatisfaction HERZBERG’s VIEW Satisfaction Motivators No Satisfaction No Dissatisfaction Hygiene Factor Dissatisfaction .

The presence of such factors prevents dissatisfaction and maintains a certain level of motivation but any reduction in the availabilities of these factors is likely to affect motivation and bring .Herzberg’s theory was based on a two-factor hypothesis that is factors leading to job satisfaction And factors leading to no job dissatisfaction. Maintenance factors are ‘context oriented’ their presence does not significantly motivate the person. Present of such factor create a highly motivating situation. These factors are ‘content oriented’. They were classified in two categories: Motivational factors are directly related to the job itself. but their absence does not cause job dissatisfaction.

Motivational vs. help in preventing dissatisfaction but do not increase satisfaction or motivation. Status goes down with Hygiene factors. Recognition goes up with Motivators . When present. Hygiene Factors Motivational Factors Hygiene factors When present lead to satisfaction and motivation. When absent increase dissatisfaction with the job. When absent prevents both satisfaction and motivation.

McClelland’s theory of Needs Developed by David McClelland and his associates.Achievement 2. The theory focuses on three needs: 1.Power 3.Affiliation .

Need for Affiliation (nAff): The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationship .Need for Achievement (nAch): The drive to excel. Need for Power (nPow): The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. to achieve in relation to a set of standards.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory The theory essentially emphasizes that motivation is increased if the individual perceives that – 1. His effort will result in successful performance 2. Successful performance leads to desired rewards The theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. .

. Rewards-personal goal relationship: The degree to which organizational reward satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for individual. Effort-performance relationship: Probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. Performance-reward relationship: The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Individual Effort 1 Individual Performance 2 Organizational Rewards 3 Personal Goals 1. 2. 3.

.EQUITY THEORY James Stacy Adams (1965) proposed the equity theory which was based on his belief that an individual’s motivation is influenced by his perception of how equitably he is treated at work.

Adam used following formula: Equity exists whenPerson’s Outcomes Other’s outcomes Other’s inputs Person’s Inputs Negative Inequity exists whenPerson’s Outcomes Person’s Inputs < Other’s outcomes Other’s inputs > Other’s outcomes Other’s inputs Positive Inequity exists whenPerson’s Outcomes Person’s Inputs .EQUITY THEORY To express his ideas.

Leave the field (quit the job) . Change their outcomes (earning more on a piece rate basis producing higher quantity) 3.EQUITY THEORY In order to restore equity. Choose a different referent (changing person with whom comparison is made) 6. Change their inputs (reduce efforts) 2. individuals can make one of the six choices: 1. Distort perception of self (changing self perception) 4. Distort perception of others (changing thoughts about others) 5.

Value of rewards Ability to do a specific task Effort Perceived Effort-reward probability Perceived equitable rewards Intrinsic rewards Performance accomplishment Perception Of task required Satisfaction Extrinsic rewards PORTER & LAWLER MOTIVATIONAL MODEL .