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Wireless Medium Access Control and

CDMA-based Communication

Medium Access Control using
ALOHA
and CSMA

Medium Access Problem • Controlling medium access so that wireless stations (WSs) transmit at any instant without collision (interference) with signals from other WSs .

reduced . at least. which. in turn. or synchronize) the access to the medium • Collisions may lead to interference of signals from different sources. causes loss of information • Therefore.Collisions • There may be collisions between signals from different sources • Then the problem is to control (restrict. it is a must that collision (interference) between the signals from different WSs is eliminated or. coordinate.

it just transmits that data • In case there is interference or collision.ALOHA • Reducing collisions─ the basic ALOHAnet protocol for a point-to-point or broadcast network • Whenever a WS has any voice-data or data to transmit. the WS retransmits the data at a later instant • ALOHAnet developed in 1970 at the University of Hawaii • Variants of ALOHAnet─ LAPDm and RLC protocols in GSM as well as GPRS .

Variants of ALOHAnet • • • • • Instance of retransmission One version─ randomly select the time Chance of success in such a case are small (average is about 18%) Improved version─ slotted ALOHA .

Slotted ALOHA • WS retransmits in a discrete time-slot instead of transmitting at a random time • Chances of collisions reduced • Chance of success is improved (average is about 36%) .

Reservation ALOHA • Slots for the WSs reserved as per the • current demand of the WSs .

Variants of the ALOHA protocol • Slotted ALOHA─ used in Mobitex (a protocol for transmitting text on mobile) • Hubbed Ethernet and non-switching Ethernet use a variant of ALOHA • Wi-Fi systems use the IEEE 802.11b protocol. which is an ALOHA-based system for multiple access .

CSMA (carrier Sense Multiple Access) • ALOHA-based multiple access has low success rates in cases where there are large numbers of users and in case of transmission of data bursts • CSMA─ a vaient of ALOHA Each WS first listens (senses) whether the carrier fc already present in the channel to be used and transmits only when there is no carrier present • Negligible chance of interference or collision .

CSMA scheme • All nodes attempt to sense at the same time • One of the nodes transmits as soon as it finds no carrier .

after which the carrier is sensed again • A priority-assignments-based scheme can also be used • Higher priority nodes shorter back-off periods .CSMA/CA (CSMA/collision avoidance) • Each node waits (backs off) for a certain period of time after sensing the carrier.

CSMA/CD (CSMA/collision detect) • A protocol in which it is checked whether a collision is detected at the transceiver before transmitting • Ethernet LAN uses the CSMA/CD protocol .

it is easy for each transmitter to sense the presence or absence of a carrier on the network .CSMA • Assumes that each WS can sense the presence or absence of each carrier on the network • On a wired network.

CSMA and CSMA/CA in a wireless medium • Listening (sensing) also means consuming energy at the terminal station • Also spending time in sensing .

the BTS transmits the transmission inhibit information (TI) • A data burst is sent to the MS for the TI • The MS senses only the TI data burst and backs off from transmission .Cellular digital packet data (CDPD) • CSMA/CD • When the channel is busy and medium access is not feasible.

DSMA (digital sense multiple access) • An acknowledgement (ACK) data burst sent to the MS • If ACK is not received by the MS. it means that a collision has been detected .

ARCNET (Attached Resource Computer Network) • A token having an address passed. first to the nearest node. then to the next nearest. and so on in the form of a token-passing ring • The addressed node receives the signals .