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in Education

Dr. Suresh K.J.
Associate Professor
N.S.S Training College

Information and Communication
Technology (ICT)
Extended synonym or as an umbrella term for

information technology(IT), but is a more
specific term that stresses the role of unified
communications and the integration of
telecommunications (telephone lines and
wireless signals), computers, necessary
software, storage, and audio-visual systems,
which enable users to access, store, transmit,
and manipulate information.

Information and Communication Technology

can contribute to universal access to
education, equity in education, the delivery of
quality learning and teaching, teachers’
professional development and more efficient
education management, governance and

Digital Divide
the gulf between those who have ready access to

computers and the Internet, and those who do not
is an economic and social inequality with regard to
access to, use of, or impact of information and
Communication Technologies(ICT).
 The divide within countries may refer to inequalities
between individuals, households, businesses, or
geographic areas, usually at different socioeconomic
levels or other demographic categories.
The divide between different countries or regions of
the world is referred to as the global digital divide
examining this technological gap between developing
and developed countries on an international scale.

Digital Natives and
Digital Immigrants
 Digital natives(the generation of people

born during or after the rise of digital
Digital Immigrants (people born before the
advent of digital technology
generational gap between the so-called
digital natives and the digital immigrants

The term digital native was coined and popularized

by education consultant [Prensky] in his 2001 article
entitled Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants, in
which he relates the contemporaneous decline in
American education to educators' failure to
understand the needs of modern students.
His article posited that "the arrival and rapid
dissemination of digital technology in the last decade
of the 20th century" had changed the way students
think and process information, making it difficult for
them to excel academically using the outdated
teaching methods of the day.
 In other words, children raised in a digital, mediasaturated world, require a media-rich learning
environment to hold their attention, and Prensky
dubbed these children "digital natives".

Blended Learning
 A formal education program in which a student

learns at least in part through delivery of content
and instruction via digital and online media with
some element of student control over time, place,
path, or pace.
The terms "blended," "hybrid," "technologymediated instruction," "web-enhanced instruction,"
and "mixed-mode instruction" are often used

Currently, use of the term blended learning

mostly involves "combining Internet and
digital media with established classroom
forms that require the physical co-presence of
teacher and students.

Free and open-source software
is computer software that can be classified as

both free software and open source software.
That is, anyone is freely licensed to use, copy,
study, and change the software in any way,
and the source code is openly shared so that
people are encouraged to voluntarily improve
the design of the software

GNU is an extensive collection of computer

GNU is composed wholly of free software
Development of the GNU operating system
was initiated by Richard Stalman at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT)
Artificial Intelligence Laboratory as a project
called the GNU Project which was publicly
announced on September 27, 1983

Linux is a Unix like computer operating

system(OS) assembled under the model of
free and open-source development and
The defining component of Linux is the Linux
Kernel, an operating system Kernel first
released on 5 October 1991 by Linux Torvalds.
The Free Software Foundation uses the name
GNU/Linux to describe the operating system

Ubuntu is a Debian-based Linux operating

system and distribution, for personal
computers including smart phones in later
versions. Ubuntu also runs network servers.
It is based on free software and named after
the Southern African philosophy of ubuntu
(literally, "human-ness"), which often is
translated as "humanity towards others”

GeoGebra is an interactive geometry ,algebra,

statistics and calculus application, intended for
learning and teaching mathematics and science
from primary school to university level.
Constructions can be made with points, vectors,
segments, lines, polygons, conic sections,
inequalities, implicit polynomials and functions.
All of them can be changed dynamically
creator, Markus Hohenwarter, started the project
in 2001 at the University of Salzburg

Stellarium is a free software planetarium
It renders a realistic projection of the night

sky in real time.
Stellarium was developed by the French
programmer Fabien Chereau, who launched
the project in the summer of 2001.

Over 600,000 stars from the Hipparcos Catalogue

(High precision parallax collecting and the Tycho2 Catalogue
Extra catalogues with more than 210 million stars
Asterisms and illustrations of the constellations
Constellations from ten cultures
Images of nebulae
Realistic Milky Way
Realistic atmosphere, sunrise and sunset
Planets of the solar system and their major moons
Ability to display stars and other celestial objects
as seen from reference points other than the Earth

Massive Open Online Course
is an online course aimed at unlimited

participation and open access via the web.
 In addition to traditional course materials such
as filmed lectures, readings, and problems, many
MOOCs provide interactive user forums to
support community interactions between
students, professors, and teachers.
 MOOCs are a recent and widely researched
development in distance education which was
first introduced in 2008 and emerged as a
popular mode of learning in 2012

The first MOOCs emerged from the Open Educational

Resource (OER) movement.
The term MOOC was coined in 2008 by Dave Cormier
of the University of Prince Edward Island in response
to a course called Connectivism and Connective
Knowledge (also known as CCK08)
Khan Academy
IIT, Mumbai

Learning Management
System (LMS)
A learning management system (LMS) is a

software application for the administration,
documentation, tracking, reporting and
delivery of e- learning education courses or
training programs.
LMSs range from systems for managing
training and educational records to software
for distributing online or blended/hybrid
college courses over the Internet with features
for online collaboration.

Colleges, universities, school districts, and

schools use LMSs to deliver online courses
and augment on-campus courses.
LMSs also act to augment the lessons the
teacher is giving

Course Management System(CMS)
A course management system (CMS) is a

collection of software tools providing an online
environment for course interactions.
A CMS typically includes a variety of online tools
and environments, such as:
An area for faculty posting of class materials such
as course syllabus and handouts.
An area for student posting of papers and other
 A gradebook where faculty can record grades and
each student can view his or her grades

An integrated email tool allowing participants

to send announcement email messages to the
entire class or to a subset of the entire class
A chat tool allowing synchronous
communication among class participants
A threaded discussion board allowing
asynchronous communication among

Blackboard Learn (previously the

Blackboard Learning Management
System), is a virtual learning environment
Its main purposes are to add online elements
to courses traditionally delivered face-to-face
and to develop completely online courses with
few or no face-to-face meetings.

Blackboard Learn provides users with a platform for

communication and sharing content.

Announcements: Professors and teachers may post

announcements for students to read. These can be found
under the announcement tab, or can be made to pop-up
when a student accesses Blackboard.
Chat: This function allows those students who are online
to chat in real time with other students in their class
Discussions: This feature allows students and professors
to create a discussion thread and reply to ones already
Mail: Blackboard mail allows students and teachers to
send mail to one another. This feature supports mass
emailing to students in a course.

Course content: This feature allows teachers to post

articles, assignments, videos etc.
Calendar: Teachers can use this function to post due dates
for assignments and tests.
Learning modules: This feature is often used for strictly
online classes. It allows professors to post different lessons
for students to access.
Assessments: This tab allows teachers to post quizzes and
exams and allows students to access them via the internet
Assignments: This features allows assignments to be
posted and students to submit assignments online
Grade Book: Teachers and professors may post grades on
Blackboard for students to view.
Media Library: Videos and other media may be posted
under this function

Moodle (Modular Object-oriented Dynamic

Learning Environment) is a free and open
source software learning management system
Developed on pedagogical principles, Moodle
is used for blended learning , distance
education, flipped classrooms and other elearning projects in schools, universities,
workplaces and other sectors.

D2L Corporation, known until 2014 as

 an educational technology company known
for its Brightspace learning management

Flipped classroom is a form of blended learning

which brings an interactive engagement pedagogy to
classrooms by having students learn content online,
usually at home, and home work is done in class with
teachers and students discussing and solving
 Teacher interaction with students is more personalized
- guidance instead of lecturing. This is also known as
backwards classroom, inverted classroom,
reverse teaching, and the Thayer Method

Augmented Reality (AR)
Augmented reality (AR) is a live direct or

indirect view of a physical, real-world
environment whose elements are augmented
(or supplemented) by computer-generated
sensory input such as sound, video, graphics
or GPS data.
It is related to a more general concept called
mediated, in which a view of reality is
modified by a computer.

 As a result, the technology functions by

enhancing one’s current perception of reality.
(By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real
world with a simulated one)

Augmentation is in real time and in semantic

context with environmental elements, such as
sports scores on TV during a match.
With the help of advanced AR technology the
information about the surrounding real world
of the user becomes interactive and digitally

Technological Pedagogical Content

Knowledge (TPACK) is a framework to understand
and describe the kinds of knowledge needed by a
teacher for effective pedagogical practice in a
technology enhanced learning environment.
The TPACK framework argues that effective
technology integration for teaching specific content
or subject matter requires understanding and
negotiating the relationships between these three
components: Technology, Pedagogy, and Content.

TPACK Knowledge Areas

TPACK consists of 7 different knowledge

 (i) Content Knowledge (CK)
 (ii) Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)
(iii) Technology Knowledge (TK)
(iv) Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)
(v) Technological Content Knowledge (TCK)
 (vi) Technological Pedagogical Knowledge
(TPK), and (vii) Technological Pedagogical
Content Knowledge (TPCK).