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:- IX

Social equality and harmony are necessary for a healthy and peaceful life. ii) Good economic conditions. The conditions necessary for good health are :i) Good physical and social environment. Good physical and social environment includes clean surroundings. Good economic conditions includes job opportunities for all for earning to have nutritious food and to lead a healthy life. proper garbage disposal and clean drinking water . . good sanitation. mental and social well being.1) Health and its failure :Health is a state of physical. iii) Social equality and harmony.

3. . physical and social environment. It refers only to the individual.2) Differences between Healthy and Disease free :Healthy Disease free 1. 2. It is a state of absence from diseases. It is a state of physical. mental and social well being. It refers to the individual. The individual has good The individual may have health. good health or poor health.

are diseases which last only for a short period of time and does not have long term effect on health. arthritis. On the basis of the symptoms the physicians look for the signs of a particular disease and conduct tests to confirm the disease. cholera etc.cold. elephantiasis. Eg:. .are diseases which lasts for a long time and has long term drastic effect on health. typhoid. Eg :. They are :- i) Acute diseases :.3) What does disease look like ? When a person is affected by a disease either the normal functioning or the appearance of one or more systems of the body changes for the worse. cough. tuberculosis. cancer etc. 4) Types of diseases :Diseases are of different types. ii) Chronic disease :. These changes give rise to signs of the disease called symptoms.diabetes.

. food. mumps.iii) Infectious diseases (Communicable diseases) :. high blood pressure etc.common cold. tuberculosis. fungi. water. measles. iii) Malfunctioning of body parts. malaria.are diseases which spread from an infected person to a healthy person through air. iv) Non-infectious diseases (Non-communicable diseases) :are diseases which are not spread from an infected person to a healthy person. 5) Causes of diseases :Diseases are caused by :i) Pathogens like virus. iv) Environmental pollution. Eg :. typhoid. night blindness. cancer.beri beri. AIDS etc. rickets. chicken pox. v) Genetic disorders. protozoans or worms. physical contact or sexual contact. vectors. bacteria. diabetes. scurvy. cholera. Eg :. ii) Poor health and under nourishment.

Influenza. Bacteria Cholera. Mumps. Amoebic dysentry. Infectious agents Diseases 1. Viruses Common cold. Typhoid.6) Infectious diseases :a) Infectious agents :The agents which cause infectious diseases are called pathogens. 2. Sl. Elephantiasis. Protozoans Malaria. Kala-azar. 5. Worms Intestinal infections. These are Viruses. Tuberculosis. Food poisoning etc. AIDS. Hepatits-B etc. . 3. Sleeping sickness. Chicken pox. Fungi Skin infections. Fungi. Bacteria. Measles. Protozoans and worms. 4. Tetanus.No. Anthrax.

vectors. Yellow fever etc. Pneumonia etc. iii) Through vectors :Mosquitoes :. Flies :. Dysentry etc.Syphilis. Amoebic dysentry etc. . iv) Through sexual contact :. ii) Through water :. AIDS. i) Through air :. water. Dengue. AIDS virus can also spread though blood transfusion and from the mother to her child during pregnancy and through breast feeding. physical contact and sexual contact.Cholera. Diarrhoea.Common cod. food. Tuberculosis.Typhoid.Malaria. Tuberculosis.b) Means of spread of infectious diseases :Infectious diseases spread from an infected person to a healthy person through air.

. ( Bacteria which cause tuberculosis of lungs).c) Organ-specific and tissue-specific manifestations :Disease causing microbes enter the body by different means and goes to different organs and tissues. ii) Microbes which enter through the mouth are likely to stay in the gut ( Bacteria which causes Typhoid) or liver (Bacteria which causes Jaundice). iv) Virus which causes Japanese encephalitis (brain fever) enters the body through mosquito bite and goes and infects the brain. i) Microbes which enters through the nose are likely to go to the lungs. iii) Virus which causes AIDS enter the body through sexual organs during sexual contact and spreads through the lymph to all parts of the body and damages the immune system.

ii) To kill the microbes :This can be done by taking suitable antibiotics and drugs which kills the microbes and the disease is cured. pain or loose motions etc. . i) To reduce the effects of the disease :This can be done by taking medicines to bring down the effects of the disease like fever. and by taking bed rest to conserve our energy.d) Principles of treatment :The treatment of infectious diseases consists of two steps. They are to reduce the effects of the disease (symptoms) and to kill the microbes which caused the disease.

Vaccines provide immunity from infectious diseases like tetanus. i) General ways of prevention :Public hygiene is most important for prevention of infectious diseases. ii) Specific ways of prevention :The specific ways to prevent infectious disease is immunisation by taking vaccines. Proper and sufficient food for every one will make people healthy to resist infection. measles. Vector borne diseases can be prevented by providing clean environment. They are general ways and specific ways. Our body has an immune system which fights microbial infection. When this system first sees an infectious microbe. Vaccines mimic the infectious microbe and strengthens our immune system and protects the body from infectious diseases. diphtheria. . Air borne diseases can be prevented by living in conditions that are not crowded.e) Principles of prevention :There are two ways of prevention of infectious diseases. Water borne diseases can be prevented by providing safe drinking water. polio etc. it responds more vigorously. whooping cough. it kills the microbe and remembers it. So if the microbe enters the body the next time.