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weather & climate

WEATHER= general condition of the atmosphere over
a specific
area. (Determinants are
temperature, pressure, relative humidity, clouds &
precipitation).

CLIMATE= average condition of the atmosphere over
a along period of time (not less than a year).
A. ELEMENTS OF WEATHER
1.Temperature
•. Radiant energy from the sun absorbed by lower
atmosphere & earths surface is converted to heat
energy.
•. There is a balance between the energy the earth
receives from the sun and the energy the earths
radiates back in space (constant ave. temp.)

3 factors that affects earths insolation.
a. Distance from the sun= 7% greater when the earth
is at perihelion than when it is at aphelion.
b. Length of daytime = varies as seasons change. But
insolation in the equator remains constant.
c. The angle of insolation =position of the sun as the
seasons change. (vertically or at an angle –
horizontal or slanted rays).
Phil. Setting
•. April to May = suns vertical rays sweep Northward
over the country
•. July to September= suns vertical rays sweep
Southward.

1.1 Greenhouse effect & temperature fluctuations
1. Temp. decreases with altitude. (water vapor is
lesser as altitude rises).
2. Dessert temp. is very low at night=dessert air is dry
& cant trap heat efficiently
3. The coolest month of the year in Northern
Hemisphere is January
& the warmest is July while
it is reverse in the Southern.
1.2 . Methods of Heat Transfer
a. Radiation = transfer of heat through space or
atmosphere
a.1 hot object (sun) radiate energy in
short waves
a.2 cool objects (earth) radiate energy in
the form of
heat waves, longer wave.

b. Conduction = transfer of heat
through a substance by
molecular contact.
c. Convection = when air is heated as
it comes in contact with the
earths surface it moves in circular
fashion from top to bottom. Hot air
moves upward, cool air tends to
sink .

1.3. How temperature recorded
a. thermometer =measures air
temperature
b. thermograph= self recording
thermometer that records the rise and
fall of the temperature during the day.
2. AIR PRESSURE
The force exerted as the air passes on
the ground and the weight is called air
pressure.
• It can be measured by barometer , that
uses Hg a very dense liquid. At normal
sea level 1 atm pres. Is = to 76 cm or
30 inches
• Affected by altitude. Higher altitude air
pressure drops because the air
molecules in high atmosphere is less
press or the molecules of air are far

3. Relative Humidity
•Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere (more
H2O more humid)
•Air capacity = max. amount of water vapor the air can
absorb. Temp. limits the amount of
water vapor the
air can absorb
•Relative humidity= actual amount of water vapor in a
volume of air
in relation to its capacity. IT is the
term weather
forecasters use most often

a. if R.H is 70%= water vapor content of the air
is 70% of its
capacity. It can still absorb
30% w.v at
the same temp.
We feel cooler
b. If R. H is 0%= air is perfectly dry. No water
vapor
content
We feel hot like in summer
c. If R.H is 100% = actual w/v in the air =airs
water vapor
capacity.
We feel hot. A relative humidity
of 100% means that the air can't hold any more
water vapor. It's totally saturated. When this
occurs, it can rain. In fact, the relative humidity
must be 100% where clouds are forming for it
to rain.

4. WIND VELOCITY (how fast)& WIND DIRECTION
(where it moves)
• Current= vertical up and down movement of the air
•Wind=air movement that is influenced by temp. and
presure.It is
form from the dense cold air that sinks
near the ground and moves horizontal
a. Convection currents
a.1. sea breeze gently blows the inland during the
day.
The air above the land rises & is replaced by cold
a.2from
landthe
breeze
air
sea. blows the toward the sea.

4.1 .Monsoon= the wind that blow
and whose directions change from
season to season.
4.2. The Coriolis Effect = way in
w/c the rotation of the earth
affects wind circulation & ocean
current circulation.
a.Rotation (counter clockwise) of the
earth= air & water moving from
the pole to the equator tend to be
deflected
a.1.to the right in the northern
hemisphere
a.2. to the left in the southern
hemisphere

4.3.The Earths Wind & Pressure Belts
Convectio Location
characteristics
n belt
1.doldrums 0 degrees latitude Low pressure,
calm & sometime
weak &
undependable
wind
2. Horse
latitudes

35 degrees N & S

High pressure &
gentle winds.
(where most of
the worlds
desserts are
located)

3. Trade
winds

Wind toward the
equator

Wind from the
horse latitude to

4.
Prevaili
ng
westerli
es
5. Polar
easterlies

35 degrees N &
S
From the horse
latitudes

6. Jet
streams

High altitude
wind. Fast
moving river of
air about 500 km
wide moving at a
speed ranging
from 240 to 480

Wind that blows
toward the poles
and turns east

High pressure
regions at the
earths poles that
produce strong
winds that flow
toward the equator
Between the upper
troposphere & the
lower stratosphere
are stronger winds
that blow in a
different directions.
Moves N in

5. CLOUD & CLOUD
FORMATION
CLOUD FORMATION ON MOUNTAINS
Humid air rush toward a mountain rises
along the slope and reaches higher & cooler
levels.
If the dew point (condensed w.v on
surfaces whose temp. is cooler) temp. is
reached clouds form.

Cloud
type
1.
cirrus

Meanin
g of
name
Curl of
hairs

2.
Spread
Stratus or
stretchout
3.
Heap or
Cumu- pile
lus

4.
Curl of
cirrostr hair in
atus
stretch

description

Feathery white, very
high composed of ice
crystals
Grayish cloud, sheet
like low lying

High billowy, like
puffed cottons.
Indicates fair weather
condition
Thin sheets that
cover the entire sky.
Rain is accompanied

5.
Curl
cirroc of heap
umulu or pile
s

6.
altostr
atus

7.
altocu
mulus

Patches of
small thin ice
crystals, like
waves or
ripples in the
sky
High &
Gray like
Spread
cirrostratus
or
often produced
stretched light, rains or
out
snow
Spread & High, thin
in heap
sheet, usually
or pile
appear before
thunderstorms,
brief rain
showers & may
form in

8.
Spread &
str
in heap
ato or pile
cu
mul
us
9.
nim
bos
trat
us
10.
cu
mul
oni
mb
us

Rain and
spread
&
stretched
out
Heap or
pile rain

Globular
masses of dark
clouds that
cover the
entire sky. May
produced brief
rain showers
Dark gray, low
lying & produced
steady rains

Thick, dense
clouds assume
an anvil shape
often produce
thunderstorms.

FOG FORMATION
=Cloud at the earths
surface. Heavier than air.
1. Advection fog
2. Radiation fog

3. Stream fog