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By

,
Chinnu Anie Tom
1st B.Ed English

VAK

• A common and widely-used model
of learning style
• Proposed by Fleming (2001)
• According to this model, most
people possess a dominant or
preferred learning style
• however some people have a
mixed and evenly balanced blend

1. Visual learners
• have two sub-channels –
linguistic(verbal) and spatial (visual)
• like to learn through written language, such as
reading and writing tasks
• remember what has been written down, even if
they do not read it more than once
• like to write down directions and pay better
attention to lectures if they watch them
• usually have difficulty with the written language
and do better with charts, demonstrations, videos,
and other visual materials
• easily visualize faces and places by using their
imagination and seldom get lost in new

 Visual learners tend to: 
• Learn through seeing
• Think in pictures and need to create vivid
mental images to retain information
• Enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos,
and movies
• Have visual skills which are demonstrated in
puzzle building, reading, writing, understanding
charts and graphs, a good sense of direction,
sketching, painting, creating visual metaphors
and analogies (perhaps through the visual
arts), manipulating images, constructing,
fixing, designing practical objects, and
interpreting visual images

 Encourage visual learners to:




use graphics to reinforce learning.
color code to organize notes and possessions.
use color to highlight important points in text.
take notes.
illustrate ideas as a picture before writing them
down.
• ask for written directions.
• use flow charts and diagrams for note taking.
• visualize spelling of words or facts to be
memorised.

2. Auditory learners
•  often talk to themselves
• may move their lips and
read out loud
• may have difficulty with
reading and writing
tasks
• often do better talking to

Auditory learners tend to:

• Learn through listening
• Have highly developed auditory skills and
are generally good at speaking and
presenting
• Think in words rather than pictures
• Learn best through verbal lectures,
discussions, talking things through and
listening to what others have to say
• Have auditory skills demonstrated in
listening, speaking, writing, storytelling,
explaining, teaching, using humour,
understanding the syntax and meaning of
words, remembering information, arguing
their point of view, and analysing language

 Encourage

auditory learners

to:
 

• read aloud.
• recite information to learn.
• use tunes or rhymes as mnemonic
devices.
• read aloud and tape test questions or
directions.
• use verbal analogies and storytelling to
demonstrate their point.

3.

Kinaesthetic learners

• do best while touching and moving
• has two sub-channels: kinesthetic
(movement) and tactile (touch)
• tend to lose concentration if there is little or
no external stimulation or movement
• When listening to lectures they may want to
take notes for the sake of moving their hands
• When reading, they like to scan the material
first, and then focus in on the details (get the
big picture first)
• typically use color high lighters and take
notes by drawing pictures, diagrams, or
doodling.

 Kinaesthetic learners tend to:
• Learn through moving, doing and touching
• Express themselves through movement
• Have good sense of balance and eye-hand
coordination
• Remember and process information through
interacting with the space around them
• Find it hard to sit still for long periods and may
become distracted by their need for activity and
exploration
• Have skills demonstrated in physical
coordination, athletic ability, hands on
experimentation, using body language, crafts,
acting, miming, using their hands to create or
build, dancing, and expressing emotions through

 Encourage

kinaesthetic learners to:

 
• make models or role play to physically
experience learning.
• skim through reading material before reading
it in detail.
• annotate text and write questions while
reading.
• translate information into diagrams or other
visual study tools.
• recite a list of items by counting on fingers.
• memorise or drill while moving e.g. when
walking.
• listen to music while studying.