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LINGUISTIC
They

PRINCIPLES

are the general principles of
language teaching.
Learning and teaching of language is
scientific. It is based on certain principles.
They are applicable to almost all
languages.
These principles are devised by the
scholars and experts in the field of
language teaching.
They ensure the effective and successful
learning and teaching of langauge.

PRINCIPLE

OF NATURALNESS
Language is learned naturally
It should start from an oral level.
Sentence is the language unit
So teacher should proceed to sentences.
PRINCIPLE OF LEARNING BY DOING
Main focus is on the development of four
skills.
Therefore practice is essential.

THE

PRINCIPLE OF PRACTICE.

Practice

leads to mastery of
language.
The expressions, grammar,
vocabulary of language depends on
practice.
According to psychological
justifications 84% of the time should
be utilized for practice.
Only 15 % should be used for
explanations and commentary.

PRINCIPLE OF IMITATION
Propounded by E L Thorndike.
Imitation is said to be the most important
principle in language learning.
He says language is learned through
imitation.
It denotes that teacher should be experts in
language structures and grammar.
If teacher makes a mistake students will
imitate it.
Especially in small classes.

PRINCIPLE

OF MOTIVATION
AND INTEREST.
Teacher should motivate and
develop interest in students.
Class should be alive and active with
aids and activities.
Teacher can use debates and
discussions.
Both students and teacher should be
active and interested in class.

PRINCIPLE

OF SPEAKING
Teacher should provide situations to speak.
In teaching oral work should be given priority.
Effective and economical way to improve
language.
Also helps in correcting pronunciations.
THE PRINCIPLE OF CONTEXT AND
SITUATION
Teacher should provide contexts and
situations.
Helps students to use language in daily life.
Classified into real and artificial situations.

PRINCIPLE

OF GRADATION AND

SEQUENCE.
It means placing language items in order.
Gradation means what all things have to be
taught.
Sequence refers what is to be taught after
each section.
PRINCIPLE OF MULTIPLE LINE OF
APPROACH
It denotes that multiple methods must be
used in teaching.
Like using activities, language games,
exercises along with lecturing.

psycholinguistics

PSYCHOLINGUISTICS
Study

of psychological factors that enable
human to;
Acquire language
Use language
Produce language
Psycholinguistics

has roots in philosophy

and education.
The term was coined by Jacob Robert
Kantor in 1936.
Psycholinguistics is an interdisciplinary field .

MAIN

FOCUS OF
PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

Language

acquisition
Language comprehension
Language production
Second Language acquisition

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LANGUAGE
Two

ACQUISITION

main schools of thought.
First perspective was upheld by Jean
Piaget and Rudolf Carnap.
This view states that languages are
learned with conscious efforts.
Alternative view was put forward by Noam
Chomsky.
This view states that humans posses an
innate language faculty.
Chomsky believed in the innate ability of
man to acquire language.

LANGUAGE
Language

COMPREHENSION

comprehension deals with how
people process or understands the
meaning of a sentence.
Theoretical devices in this field:Modular views
Interactive views
Modular view assumes that there are
different stages in processing a sentence
which are independent.
These different stages have limited
interaction.

Interactive

perspective.
This view states that information
contained in a sentence can be processed
at any time.
There are no different levels or stages.
There are evidences to support both
theories.
Still nobody has proved which is the
correct one.

BEHAVIOURISM
Main

proponents are Pavlov , E.L
Thorndike and B.F.Skinner.
Laws evolved by Thorndike:
 The law of readiness.
The law of exercise.
The law of effect.
Learning is a mechanical process of habit
formation.
Language learning is like forming
behaviour. It is through reinforcement and
practice.

SIGNIFICANT

Language

PRINCILPES

is acquired through external
observation.
Behaviour is subject to observation.
Linguistic behaviour is a habit.
Habits are formed by imitation and
repetition
Childs‘s mind is a tabula rasa.
Language learning ability is a general
ability.
Habits are a matter of stimulusresponse.

CRITICAL

VIEWS

Behaviorism approximates man to
automations or mechanical
 it disregards man’s ability to think
and discriminate.
it is concerned only with surface
aspects of learning.
It fails to account for complexity and
creativity of language.

COGNITIVISM
Popularly

known as Gestalt school of
psychology.
Gestalt means whole.
Importance is given the whole development
of language.
Lays emphasis on cognitive experiences.
Cognitive experience means meaningful
understanding.
It believes that humans possess innate
ability to acquire language.

SIGNIFICANT

PRINCIPLES.
Human beings are endowed with biological
capacity for language.
The capacity to learn language is genetic.
Not acquired.
Learning is a meaningful activity.
CRITICAL VIEWS
Concept of innateness cannot be
subjected to verification.
It neglects the role of environmental
factors.
The theory has not evolved substantial
methods of teaching.

CONSTRUCTIVISM
Main

supporters of this theory are; Jean
Piaget, Jerome S Bruner, Vygotsky, Noam
Chomsky etc.
Learning is a process of constructing
knowledge.
Child interacts with the nature and
constructs knowledge.
Through interaction, investigation, reaction
and interpretation.
Learning involves problem solving.
Education is learner centered.
Construction of knowledge through
experience and prior knowledge.

Constructivist

approach is:
Child centered.
Activity based.
Process oriented.
FEATURES.
Prediction, creation and analysis of
knowledge.
Promotion of divergent thinking and
reflective thinking.
Freedom of children to self regulation.
Developing ability for free expression.
Open ended learning strategy.
More stress on learning process
Teacher’s role as a guide and co-learner.

CONCLUSION
languages

are complex combinations of
elegant principles.
It is difficult to develop a clear cut
concrete theories in language.
There are many theories in the field of
language acquisition. But most of them
fails to provide a satisfying explanation.
All theories agree on one fact that is,
language acquisition is the key aspect that
distinguishes man from other living
beings.

THANK YOU

BY
AMALA SEBASTIAN