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GROUP ASSIGNMENT

FOOD TECHNOLOGY
BNN40304
How Do You Feel About Genetically
Modified Food (GMF)?
Are They Beneficial or Harmful?

Group Members
KHAIRUL ANWAR ROSLI
LIM HUI SIN
TAN KIAN MENG
UMIE ADILAH JAMAL

Introduction To
Genetic Modified Food

By: Khairul
Anwar

animals or microorganism in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered and do not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombinant. • Genetically Modified Food (GMF) in the other hand referred to the food that produced from/or using GMOs. .What Whatis isGenetic GeneticModified Modified Food? Food? • World Health Organization (WHO) defined Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) as the organism such as plants.

Product with a lower price. ii. . Durability and nutritional value of the food. 2) Improve crop protection. Increased tolerance towards herbicides. .Objectives Objectivesof ofGMFs GMFs GMFs are developed and marketed to: 1) Perceived advantages to food producer and consumer such as: i. Resistance to diseases (insects/viruses). .

.’ The DNA to be introduced into the plant cells is coated onto tiny particles. • Genes of interest are transferred from one organism to another.How How GMFs GMFs are are made? made? • GMFs are made through a process known as genetic engineering. – The second method uses a bacterium to introduce the gene(s) of interest into the plant DNA. – The first involves a device called a ‘gene gun. These particles are then physically shot onto plant cells. • Two primary methods currently exist for introducing transgenes into plant genomes. Some of the DNA comes off and is incorporated into the DNA of the recipient plant.

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– The development and commercialization of insectresistant transgenic Bt crops expressing Cry toxins is a great achievement in agriculture and GMF. insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) or Cry protein.Example Example of of GMF GMF application application Bt toxins – Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a common gram negative. – Bt cells undergo sporulation. synthesizing a protein crystal. soil bacterium. spore-forming. – Benefits: • High specificity and potency • Reduction in chemical pesticides application • Increased crop yield .

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Health Factors And Concerns Of GMFs By: Lim Hui Sin .

Does the product encoded by the transgene present a Risk to consumers or handlers? 3.Question Frequently Asked Question Frequently Asked 1. Is the transgene itself Toxic? Can it be transferred to the genome of a consumer? 2. Will genetic transformation adversely affect the nutritional value of the host? . Will insertion of the transgene increase the potential hazard from toxins or pharmacologically active substances present in the host? 4.

• All genetically modified foods that have been approved are considered by the government to be as safe as their traditional counterparts and are generally unregulated (FDA website). .

.” including infertility. faulty insulin regulation. “Several animal studies indicate serious health risks associated with genetically modified (GM) food. accelerated aging.• In 2009. the American Academy of Environmental Medicine (AAEM) stated that. and changes in major organs and the gastrointestinal system. The AAEM has asked physicians to advise all patients to avoid GM foods. immune problems.

Potential PotentialHealth Health Effect Effect 1. 6. 2. 5. 4. Food Allergy Increased Toxicity Decreased Nutritional Value Antibiotic Resistance Cancer Immuno-suppression . 3.

the kiwi fruit was introduced into the U. however.Food FoodAllergy Allergy • Allergenicity is one of the major concerns about food derived from transgenic crops..S. • For example. today there are people allergic to this fruit (Pastorello et al. 1998).  . and the European markets in the 1960s with no known human allergies.

were to be transferred. • This would be particularly relevant if antibiotic resistance genes. .Gene GeneTransfer Transfer • Gene transfer from GMF to cells of the body or to bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract would cause concern if the transferred genetic material adversely affects human health. • Although the probability of transfer is low. used as markers when creating GMOs. the use of gene transfer technology that does not involve antibiotic resistance genes is encouraged.

may have an indirect effect on food safety and food security. as well as the mixing of crops derived from conventional seeds with GM crops. including a clear separation of the fields within which GM crops and . • Cases have been reported where GM crops approved for animal feed or industrial use were detected at low levels in the products intended for human consumption.Outcrossing Outcrossing • The migration of genes from GM plants into conventional crops or related species in the wild (referred to as “outcrossing”). • Several countries have adopted strategies to reduce mixing.

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Influence of Changing Consumer Lifestyles On Food Product Development By :Tan Kian Meng .

• Food product development needs to be based on consumers’ needs and wishes to be successful. • Factors that have become relevant in respect to this are: – Cultural influences – Aging and health issues – Busy lifestyles – Food safety and ethical issues – Environmental issues .

Well aware of the importance to have an offer with specific products to meet the needs and tastes of consumers from different cultures such as that all the ingredients used by McDonald’s in Arabic and Muslim countries are certified halal. Cultural Influences • Cultural factors are coming from the different components (eg. of course. tradition etc. religion. belief.1. The fast food chain is not offering. any product with bacon or pork .) that influence the consumer’s behaviour on food choices. For example food product development: • McDonald’s is a brilliant example of adaptation to the specificities of each culture and each market.

functional eggs and etc. zinc. vitamin E.2. folic acid. Aging and Health Issues • Today foods are not intended to only satisfy hunger and to provide necessary nutrients for humans but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases and improve physical and mental wellbeing of the consumers (Menrad. . • Functional foods have been developed in virtually all food categories such as probiotics. 2003 and Roberfroid. functional meats. 2000b). For example: Functional Foods • Functional foods were those of fortified with vitamins and/or minerals such as vitamin C. prebiotics. iron. and calcium that promote good health.

. Busy Lifestyles • Major macro-economic changes that occurred worldwide in the last few decades cause many of us life in busyness. pies.3. Increased incomes and general economic growth has resulted in many ‘cash rich. pizzas. soups and other prepared consumer ready products. • Convenient foods help in reducing the input required from consumers in either food shopping. time poor’ consumers. processed meats. savoury products. cooking or cleaning after the meal. dairy desserts. ice-cream and confectionery products. preparation. For example: Convenient Foods • Products which have undergone secondary processing including ready meals.

there are concerns about scientists “playing God. there are worries about the future safety of the technology. such as the creation of super-weeds and the development of serious illness.” • At the consumer level. Microbiological considerations are an even greater challenge to safety of food.4. Food Safety and Ethical Issues • Food safety-the inverse of food risk/the probability of not suffering some hazard from consuming a specific food. • At the ethical level. For example: GM Food • Tolerant to herbicides and resistant to insect damage. .

substitute for meat in everyday meals. • Obtain from lab-base method. For example: Quorn (microbe-protein) • Non-threatening alternative to meat. • Nowadays. save the land used. the world have diverted to the practice of sustainable food consumption and production. Environmental Issues • Unsustainable food consumption and production brought adverse impacts to the environment.5. . for instance vegetarianisms.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of GMFs By: UMIE ADILAH JAMAL .

3.Advantages 1. Larger Production    It is much easier to raise the crops since its have stronger pest resistance. . 4. Foods are more resistant and stay ripe  can be shipped long distances or kept on shop shelves for longer periods. Leads to Decreased Use of Pesticides  GMF do not need pesticides to achieve stronger protection and resistance against the different kinds of pests and insects that may destroy it. Such situation helps the farmers to produce doubled amounts of foods or crops much easier. 2. Allow the consumers to manage their healthy diet more effectively since all of the crops that it can offer are 100% nutritious and good for their health. Huge Amount of Nutritious Foods   The consumers will be able to find several healthy foods that are full of several kinds of nutrients compared to the ordinary crops that are available in the market.

.GMO crops cross-pollinate with nearby non-GMO plants   Herbicide-resistant and pesticide-resistant crops could give rise to super-weeds and super-pests that would need newer.Unusual Taste   Do not taste natural compared to the ordinary foods that are available in the market. 4. stronger chemicals to destroy them. 2.Decreased Antibiotic Efficacy  Some GMO foods have had antibiotic features built into them to make them immune or resistant to diseases or viruses. causing new allergic reactions in the human body.  When you eat them.  Such ingestion of GMO foods and regular exposure to antibiotics may be contributing to the decreased effectiveness of antibiotic drugs that is being noticed in hospitals around the world.Allergic Reactions  GMO foods can present significant allergy risks to people  Genetic modification often mixes or adds proteins that weren't indigenous to the original plant or animal.Disadvantages 1. Its unusual taste could be a result of the substances that were added in its composition 3. these antibiotic markers persist in your body and can make actual antibiotic medications less effective.

Conclusion • Modern technology should be applied to improve the way the food is produced for certain cause such as: i. decrease allergenicity. . The potential of biotechnology could benefits the public health such as increase the food nutrient content. ii. Potential negative effect of GMFs on human health must be examined thoroughly before developing new food products.