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network of networks, joining many
government, university and private computers
together and providing an infrastructure for
the use of E-mail, bulletin boards, file archives,
hypertext documents, databases and other
computational resources.
The vast collection of computer networks
which form and act as a single huge network
for transport of data and messages across
distances which can be anywhere from the
same office to anywhere in the world.

It started asresearch project to
experiment with connecting
computers together with packet
switched networks. It was developed
with funding and leadership of the
Defense Department’s Advanced
Research Projects Agency (ARPA).

1957 – USSR launches Sputnik into space. In
response, the USA creates the Advanced
Research Projects Agency (ARPA) with the
mission of becoming the leading force in
science and new technologies..
1962 – J.C.R. Licklider of MIT proposes the
concept of a “Galactic Network.” For the first
time ideas about a global network of
computers are introduced. J.C.R. Licklider is
later chosen to head ARPAS reseàrch Efforts.

1962 - Paul Baran, a member of the
RAND Corporation, determines a way
for the Air Force to control bombers
and missiles in case of a nuclear event.
His results call for a decentralized
network comprised of packet switches.
1968 - ARPA contracts out work to BBN.
BBN is called upon to build the first
1969 – RPANET created - BBN creates
the first switched network by linking
four different nodes in California and
Utah; one at the University of Utah, one
at the University of California at Santa
Barbara, one at Stanford and one at the

1972 - Ray Tomlinson working for BBN
creates the first program devoted to
1972 - ARPA officially changes its name
to DARPA Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency.
1972 - Network Control Protocol is
introduced to allow computers running
on the same network to communicate
with each other.
1973 - Vinton Cerf working from
Stanford and Bob Kahn from DARPA
begin work developing TCP/IP to allow
computers on different networks to
communicate with each other.

1974 - Kahn and Cerf refer to the
system as the Internet for the first
1976 - Ethernet is developed by Dr.
Robert M. Metcalfe.
1976 – SATNET, a satellite program is
developed to link the United States and
Europe. Satellites are owned by a
consortium of nations, thereby
expanding the reach of the Internet
beyond the USA.
1976 – Elizabeth II, Queen of the United
Kingdom, sends out an email on 26
March from the Royal Signals and
Radar Establishment (RSRE) in Malvern.
1976 - AT& T Bell Labs develops UUCP

1979 - USENET, the first news group
network is developed by Tom Truscott,
Jim Ellis and Steve Bellovin.
1979 - IBM introduces BITNET to work
on emails and listserv systems.
1981 - The National Science Foundation
releases CSNET 56 to allow computers
to network without being connected to
the government networks.
1983 - Internet Activities Board
1983 - TCP/IP becomes the standard for
internet protocol.

1983 - Domain Name System
introduced to allow domain names to
automatically be assigned an IP
1984 - MCI creates T1 lines to allow for
faster transportation of information
over the internet.
1984- The number of Hosts breaks
1985- 100 years to the day of the last
spike being driven on the Canadian
Pacific Railway, the last Canadian
university was connected to NetNorth
in a one year effort to have coast-tocoast connectivity

1987- The number of hosts breaks 10,000
1988 - Traffic rises and plans are to find a new
replacement for the T1 lines.
1989- The Number of hosts breaks 100 000
1989- Arpanet ceases to exist
1990 - Advanced Network & Services (ANS)
forms to research new ways to make internet
speeds even faster. The group develops the T3
line and installs in on a number of networks.
1990 - A hypertext system is created and
implemented by Tim Berners-Lee while
working for CERN.
1990- The first search engine is created by
McGill University, called the Archie Search

1991- U.S green-light for commercial
enterprise to take place on the Internet
1991 - The National Science Foundation (NSF)
creates the National Research and Education
Network (NREN).
1991 - CERN releases the World Wide Web
publicly on August 6th, 1991
1992 – The Internet Society (ISOC) is
1992- Number of hosts breaks 1,000,00
1993 - InterNIC released to provide general
services, a database and internet directory.
1993- The first web browser, Mosaic (created
by NCSA), is released. Mosaic later becomes
the Netscape browser which was the most

1994 - New networks added frequently.
1994 - First internet ordering system
created by Pizza Hut.
1994 - First internet bank opened: First
1995 - NSF contracts out their access to
four internet providers.
1995 - NSF sells domains for a $50
annual fee.
1995 – Netscape goes public with 3rd
largest ever NASDAQ IPO share value
1995- Registration of domains is no
longer free.

1996- The WWW browser wars are
waged mainly between Microsoft and
Netscape. New versions are released
quarterly with the aid of internet users
eager to test new (beta) versions.
1996 – Internet2 project is initiated by
34 universities
1996 - Internet Service Providers begin
appearing such as Sprint and MCI.
1996 - Nokia releases first cell phone
with internet access.
1997- (Arin) is established to handle
administration and registration of IP
numbers, now handled by Network
Solutions (IinterNic)

1998-Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers (ICANN) created to
be able to oversee a number of
Internet-related tasks
1999 - A wireless technology called
802.11b, more commonly referred to as
Wi-Fi, is standardized.
2000- The dot com bubble bursts,
numerically, on March 10, 2000, when
the technology heavy NASDAQ
composite index peaked at 5,048.62
2001 - Blackberry releases first internet
cell phone in the United States.
2001 – The spread of P2P file sharing

corporate and 40 affiliate members
2003- The French Ministry of Culture bans the
use of the word "e-mail" by government
ministries, and adopts the use of the more
French sounding "courriel"
2004 – The Term Web 2.0 rises in popularity
when O'Reilly and MediaLive host the first
Web 2.0 conference.
2004- Mydoom, the fastest ever spreading
email computer worm is released. Estimated 1
in 12 emails are infected.
2005- Estonia offers Internet Voting nationally
for local elections
2005-Youtube launches
2006- There are an estimated 92 million
websites online

is almost completely cut off after
international satellite
communications provider Intelsat
cuts service for non-payment
 2006- Internet2 announced a
partnership with Level 3
Communications to launch a brand
new nationwide network, boosting
its capacity from 10Gbps to
 2007- Internet2 officially retires
Abilene and now refers to its new,
higher capacity network as the
Internet2 Network

space communications network modeled on
the Internet. Using software called DisruptionTolerant Networking, or DTN, dozens of space
images are transmitted to and from a NASA
science spacecraft located about more than
32 million kilometers from Earth
2009 – ICANN gains autonomy from the U.S
2010- Facebook announces in February that it
has 400 million active users.
2010 – The U.S House of Representatives
passes the Cybersecurity Enhancement Act
(H.R. 4061)
2012 - A major online protest shook up U.S.
Congressional support for two anti-Web piracy
bills - the Stop Online Piracy Act in the House
and the Protect IP Act in the Senate. Many in
the tech industry are concerned that the bills


Every host on the Internet must have a unique IP
The IP address is a 32-bit number which we write in
dotted decimal notation
The first part of the IP address is the network address
– the remainder is the host ID
A subnet mask is used to determine the network
address from a IP host address
All hosts on the same network are configured with the
same subnet mask

 IP

network addresses must be unique, or the Internet
will not be stable
 The Internet Network Information Centre (InterNIC)
was originally responsible for issuing Internet network
 Today, the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA)
issues network addresses to Information Service
Providers (ISPs)
 ISPs split networks up into subnets and sell them on
to their customer

IP addresses are used to identify hosts on a
TCP/IP network
 Example:
 Numbers are not ‘friendly’ – people prefer
 DNS is a protocol used to map IP addresses
to textual names
 E.g. maps to


DNS names have a hierarchical
DNS names have a hierarchical


is the protocol used to access resources on the World Wide

A browser application is used to send a request to the WWW server
for a resource, e.g. a web page, graphics file, audio file, etc.

server responds by sending the resource (a file) to the client
and closing the connection

 Protocol

for copying files between client and an FTP

 Uses a TCP connection for reliable transfer of files with
 Most browsers support FTP, or you can use a dedicated
FTP client program, e.g WS_FTP
 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a lightweight
version for small memory devices


Telnet allows a user to run commands
and programs remotely on another
computer across the Internet
The user runs a Telnet client program
on the local host
A Telnet server process must be
running on the remote host
The user must have the necessary
permissions and password to access
the remote host



national research networks (NRN's), such as
Internet2 and NGI (Next Generation Internet), are developing
high speed, next generation networks.
In the United States, Internet2 is the foremost non for profit
advanced networking consortium led by over 200 universities in
cooperation with 70 leading corporations, 50 international
partners and 45 non profit and government agencies.
The Internet2 community is actively engaged in developing and
testing new network technologies that are critical to the future
progress of the Internet.

Internet2 operates the Internet2 Network, a
next-generation hybrid optical and packet
network that furnishes a 100Gbps network
backbone, providing the U.S research and
education community with a nationwide
New quality of service (QoS) technologies, for
instance, would allow the Internet to provide
different levels of service, depending on the
type of data being transmitted. Different
types of data packets could receive different
levels of priority as they travel over a
As next generation Internet development
continues to push the boundaries of what's
possible, the existing Internet is also being
enhanced to provide higher transmission
speeds, increased security and different levels