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**College of Applied Sciences-Sohar
**

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

HAND-OUT

Thermodynamics I

CHEN2212

**Lecture Unit 3 a: 1St Law of Thermodynamics Applications
**

Name

ID. No.

year

Section

Prepared By

Dr. Uzaldin Sadick AbdulHussain

Course Lecturer

Feb.2012

27/11/15

Thermodynamics I- CHEN2212

1

**Ministry of Higher Education
**

College of Applied Sciences-Sohar

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Thermodynamics I

CHEN2212

Lecture Unit 5: 1St Law of Thermodynamics

Prof. Dr. Uzaldin Sadick AbdulHussain

Room:

27/11/15

Feb.2012

Thermodynamics I- CHEN2212

2

Objectives

In this section you will do the following.

1st Law of Thermodynamics and its

applications.

27/11/15

Thermodynamics I- CHEN2212

3

.CHEN2212 27/11/15 fluid. this is the main reason for defining the property enthalpy. The total energy consists of three parts for a nonflowing fluid and four parts for a 4 flowing Thermodynamics I. In fact.Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid h = u + Pv The flow energy is automatically taken care of by enthalpy.

27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.CHEN2212 5 .First Law of Thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of energy principle to heat and thermodynamic processes: The first law makes use of the key concepts of internal energy. heat. It is used extensively in the discussion of heat engines. and system work.

Φ + P = ∆(PE)/s + ∆(KE)/s + ∆(H)/s This is called the STEADY FLOW ENERGY EQUATION (S. Note that the term ∆ means ‘change of’ and if the inlet is denoted point (1) and the outlet point (2).F.) Again. Energy may be transferred out as a rate of heat transfer Φ or as a rate of work transfer P. The change is the difference between the values at (2) and (1). A good example of this system is a steam turbine. 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.E. we will use the convention of positive for energy transferred into the system. Fluid enters and leaves through the boundary at a steady rate.CHEN2212 6 . The fluid entering and leaving has potential energy (PE). The first law becomes Φ + P = Nett change in energy of the fluid.E.STEADY FLOW SYSTEMS The laws governing this type of system are as follows. Energy may be transferred into or out of the system. For example ∆H means (H2-H1). kinetic energy (KE) and enthalpy (H).

F. Side figure. the volume is fixed and no work transfer occurs.g. Q = 0 so W = ∆U If the piston does not move. In this case Q = ∆U For a GAS ONLY the change in internal energy is Thermodynamics I. is.E. when the cylinder is insulated).MORE EXAMPLES OF THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS When we examine a thermodynamic system.E. 7 . The N. we must first decide whether it is a non-flow or a steady flow system. Q + W = ∆U Sometimes there is no heat transfer (e.CHEN2212 27/11/15 ∆U= mCv∆T. First. we will look at examples of non-flow systems. PISTON IN A CYLINDER There may be heat and work transfer.

Since no change in volume occurs. there is no work transfer So Q + W= ∆U Q = ∆U 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.SEALED EVAPORATOR OR CONDENSER.CHEN2212 8 .

06 = 12 J Q = ∆U .W = ∆U The change in internal energy is ∆U = mcv ∆T = 0.4 30 g of gas inside a cylinder fitted with a piston has a temperature of 15oC.WORKED EXAMPLE No.(-W) W = force x distance moved = 200 x 0. Calculate the heat transfer given cv = 718 J/kg K.24 J 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.24 J The work is transferred into the system because the volume shrinks.CHEN2212 9 .03 x 718 x (21 . SOLUTION This is a non flow system so the law applying is Q .W = 117. The temperature rises to 21oC as a result.15) ∆U = 129. The piston is moved with a mean force of 200 N so that that it moves 60 mm and compresses the gas.

this becomes P = V∆p . simplifies to P = ∆H/s Remember that enthalpy is the sum of internal energy and flow energy. The S. vapours and liquids may be found.E. The enthalpy of gases.PUMPS AND FLUID MOTORS The diagram shows graphical symbols for hydraulic pumps and motors The S.F. especially if the fluid is a liquid. the change of internal energy is small and so the change in enthalpy is equal to the change in flow energy only. If the inlet and outlet are at the same height.E. the PE is also neglected.F. Φ + P =∆KE/s + ∆PE/s + ∆H/s In this case. In the case of liquids.E. the velocity is the same at inlet and outlet and the kinetic energy is ignored.E. states.CHEN2212 27/11/15 Since FE = pV and V is constant for a liquid. The equation simplifies further to P =∆FE/s 10 Thermodynamics I. Heat transfer does not usually occur in pumps and motors so Φ is zero.

0 = 800 kPa P = 0. Since they are at the same level.48 kW 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.0256 x 800000 = 20 480 W or 20. Neglect heat transfer and internal energy.CHEN2212 11 .WORKED EXAMPLE No. the velocities are equal and the change in kinetic energy is zero. Calculate the theoretical power input. P= V ∆p V = m/ρ = 20/780 = 0.0256 m3/s ∆p = 800 . the change in potential energy is also zero. The inlet and outlet pipes are the same size and at the same level. SOLUTION Since the pipes are the same size.5 A pump delivers 20 kg/s of oil of density 780 kg/m3 from atmospheric pressure at inlet to 800 kPa gauge pressure at outlet.

5 = 2070 kW or 2.9 = 103.h1) The h values may be found from tables. 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I. h2 = 602kJ/kg P = 20 (602 .6 kJ/kg ∆f. ∆h = ∆u + ∆f.5 kJ/kg P = m∆h = 20 x 103. Assuming that there is no heat transfer and that PE and KE are negligible.e.9 kJ/kg hence ∆h = ∆u + ∆fe = 83.e.18 kJ/kg K for water ∆u = 4. SOLUTION In this case the internal energy has increased due to frictional heating. h1 = 504 kJ/kg This is near enough the value of hf at 120oC bar in steam tables.001 x (200 . calculate the theoretical power input.18 (140 .001 m3/kg. ∆f.6 A feed pump on a power station pumps 20 kg/s of water.504) = 1969 kW or 1.07 MW The discrepancies between the answers are slight and due to the fact the value of the specific heat and of the specific volume are not accurate at 200 bar. At inlet the water is at 1 bar and 120oC.1) x 105 = 19 900 J/kg or 19.WORKED EXAMPLE No. The SFEE reduces to P = ∆H/s = m(h2 .e.120) =83.969 MW If water tables are not to hand the problem may be solved as follows.6 + 19. = V∆p The volume of water is normally around 0. ∆u = c ∆T where c = 4. At outlet it is at 200 bar and 140oC.CHEN2212 12 . = 0.

27/11/15 Thermodynamics I. Figure below shows the basic construction of an axial flow compressor and turbine. The turbine passes high pressure hot gas or steam from left to right making the rotor rotate.CHEN2212 13 . These have rows of aerofoil blades on the rotor and in the casing.GAS COMPRESSORS AND TURBINES. The compressor draws in gas and compresses it in stages.

Φ + P = ∆K.E.E./s + ∆P. Often both kinetic and potential energy are negligible.Compressing a gas normally makes it hotter but expanding it makes it colder. Figure below shows graphical symbols for turbines and compressors. the volumes change dramatically with pressure. The internal energy change is not negligible. This might cause a change in velocity and hence kinetic energy. This is because gas is compressible and unlike the cases for liquids already covered.CHEN2212 14 . Note the narrow end is always the high pressure end./s + ∆H/s P = ∆H/s 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.

CHEN2212 15 . A compressor is capable of compressing the gas to very high pressures. and the turbine produces work. are devices used to increase the pressure of a fluid. work is done against the blades. gas. As the fluid passes through the turbine. Pumps work very much like compressors except that they handle liquids instead of gases. 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I. the shaft rotates. Work is supplied to these devices from an external source through a rotating shaft. As a result. which are attached to the shaft. Energy balance for the compressor in this figure: A fan increases the pressure of a gas slightly and is mainly used to mobilize a gas. Compressors. as well as pumps and fans. or hydroelectric power plants.drives the electric generator In Turbines and CompressorsTurbine steam.

(-20) = -2241 kW The minus sign indicates that the power is leaving the turbine. SOLUTION First identify this as a steady flow system for which the equation is Φ + P = ∆K.CHEN2212 16 . you would look up the h values in the steam tables.7 A gas turbine uses 5 kg/s of hot air. The enthalpy change for a gas is ∆H = mCp∆T ∆H = 5 x 1005 x (450 . Note that if this was a steam turbine.E./s + ∆P. It takes it in at 6 bar and 900oC and exhausts it at 450oC. and PE to be negligible.900) = -2261000 W or -2. Calculate the theoretical power output given that cp = 1005 J/kg K.WORKED EXAMPLE No. The heat transfer rate is -20 kW.261 MW P = ∆H Φ = -2261 . 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.The turbine loses 20 kW of heat from the casing.E./s + ∆H/s For lack of further information we assume K.E.

3 .005 x (86 .WORKED EXAMPLE No. 8 An air compressor sucks in air at 15oC and delivers it 86oC. and P. Take cp = 1.CHEN2212 17 .E.005 kJ/kg K and cv = 0. Cooling removes 30 kW from the air.3 kW 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.T1) = 1 x 1.718 kJ/kg K.15) = 71. Neglect K. Calculate the power consumption for a unit mass flow.(-30) = 101.E. SOLUTION Calculate the change in enthalpy for 1 kg/s Φ + P = ∆H/s = m cp (T2 .3 kW P = 71.

5 kg/min at 1 bar and 10oC and delivers it at 8 bar and 30oC. 9 A reciprocating air compressor shown above sucks in 3.E.5 kW. may be ignored. The heat transfer rate is -0./s + ∆H/s For lack of further information we assume K.5) = 1.5 W or 1.E.CHEN2212 18 .172 kW P = ∆H . The enthalpy change for a gas is ∆H = m cp ∆T ∆H = (3. The velocity of the air at inlet and outlet is the same so K.10) = 1172. Take cp = 1005 J/kg K.Φ = 1.5 kW. Calculate the theoretical power input to the motor.WORKED EXAMPLE No./s + ∆P.(-0. E. SOLUTION First identify this as a steady flow system for which the equation is Φ + P = ∆K.672 kW This will be the power supplied to the motor as electricity. 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I. and PE to be negligible. The total energy loss to the surroundings is 0.5/60) x 1005 x (30 .172 .E. This is due to heat generated in the motor and heat removed by the coolers.

Large gas heat exchangers are used on gas turbine sets to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to the incoming air. The simple cooler shown may be used to cool gas with water in an air compressor or to produce hot water from exhaust gases of engines. In heat exchangers there is no work transferred in or out. 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.CHEN2212 19 . K.E.E. HEATERS and HEAT EXCHANGERS Coolers and heaters are examples of heat exchanger.F.E.E. and P. reduces to Φ = ∆H/s If there is no energy lost to the surroundings then the same heat transfer rate must occur out of one fluid and into the other.GAS COOLERS. are not normally a feature of such systems so the S.

Ignore kinetic and potential energy and assume constant pressure.120) = 68. SOLUTION Since no work is done the steady flow energy equation gives us: Φ = ∆H/s = m cp ∆T = 0.4 kg/s of air passing into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine is pre-heated from 120oC to 290oC in an exhaust gas heat exchanger. Calculate the heat transfer rate into the air given c p = 1.CHEN2212 20 . 10 0.4 x 1.34 kW 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.WORKED EXAMPLE No.005 kJ/kg K.005 x (290 .

Ignore kinetic and potential energy and assume constant pressure. Calculate the heat transfer rate from the air given cp = 1.05 kg/s is cooled from 110oC to 55oC in an intercooler. 0.005 x (55 .110) = -2.05 x 1. SOLUTION Since no work is done the steady flow energy equation gives us: Φ = ∆H/s = m cp ∆T = 0.CHEN2212 21 . 11 In an air compressor.764 kW (out of air) 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.WORKED EXAMPLE No.005 kJ/kg K.

it has a heat exchanger inside that absorbs heat at a cold temperature and evaporates the liquid into a gas.STEADY FLOW EVAPORATORS AND CONDENSERS A refrigerator is a good example of a thermodynamic system. In particular.CHEN2212 22 . The gas is compressed and becomes hot. 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I. The gas is then cooled and condensed on the outside in another heat exchanger.

E.CHEN2212 23 .For both the evaporator and condenser. there is no work transferred in or out./s + ∆P.E. K.E.E.E. reduces to Φ + P = ∆K.E./s + ∆H/s Φ + P = ∆H/s 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.F. and P. are not normally a feature of such systems so the S.

Heat exchangers Heat exchangers are devices where two moving fluid streams exchange heat without mixing. and they come in various designs. The heat transfer associated with a heat exchanger may be zero or nonzero depending on how the control volume is selected. Heat exchangers are widely used in various industries. 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.CHEN2212 24 . Mass and energy balances for the adiabatic heat exchanger in the figure is: A heat exchanger can be as simple as two concentric pipes.

Boilers On steam power plant. boilers are used to raise steam and these are examples of large evaporators working at high pressures and temperatures.CHEN2212 25 ./s + ∆H/s Φ = ∆H/s 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.E. Φ + P = ∆K./s + ∆P.E.

/s + ∆P. The energy equation is the same.Condensers Steam condensers are also found on power stations.E./s + ∆H/s Φ = ∆H/s 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I. whatever the application.E. Φ + P = ∆K.CHEN2212 26 .

2125) = -15896 kW The negative sign indicates heat transferred from the system to the surroundings. The working pressure is 0. SOLUTION Φ = ∆H/s = m(h2 . 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.CHEN2212 27 .82.h1) h1 = hf + x hfg at 0.05 bar = 138 kJ/kg hence Φ = 8(138 .WORKED EXAMPLE No.05 bar. This is condensed into saturated water at outlet.05 bar from the steam tables we find that h1 = 138 + 0. Calculate the heat transfer rate.82(2423) = 2125 kJ/kg h2 = hf at 0.12 A steam condenser takes in wet steam at 8 kg/s and dryness fraction 0.

CHEN2212 28 . Φ + P = ∆K. and even garden hoses.E. rockets. A nozzle is a device that increases the velocity of a fluid at the expense of pressure./s + ∆P./s= ./s + ∆H/s ∆K.E.∆H/s 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I. nozzles and diffusers perform opposite tasks. A diffuser is a device that increases the pressure of a fluid by slowing it down. That is.Nozzles and Diffusers Nozzles and diffusers are commonly utilized in jet engines. spacecraft.E.

The reverse is true for diffusers.CHEN2212 29 . Nozzles and diffusers are shaped so that they cause large changes in fluid velocities and thus kinetic energies. A diffuser is a device that increases the pressure of a fluid by slowing it down.Nozzles and Diffusers Nozzles and diffusers are commonly utilized in jet engines. A nozzle is a device that increases the velocity of a fluid at the expense of pressure. spacecraft. rockets. The cross-sectional area of a nozzle decreases in the flow direction for subsonic flows and increases for supersonic flows. and even garden hoses. 27/11/15 Energy balance for a nozzle or diffuser: Thermodynamics I.

E./s + ∆H/s ∆H/s=0 H1/s=H2/s 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I. Φ + P = ∆K.E.CHEN2212 30 ./s + ∆P.Throttling Valves Throttling valves are any kind of flow-restricting devices that cause a significant pressure drop in the fluid.

What is the difference between a turbine and a throttling valve? The pressure drop in the fluid is often accompanied by a large drop in temperature.CHEN2212 31 . Energy balance The temperature of an ideal gas does not change during a throttling (h = constant) process since h = h(T). and for that reason throttling devices are commonly used in refrigeration and airconditioning applications. the enthalpy of a fluid remains constant.Throttling valves Throttling valves are any kind of flow-restricting devices that cause a significant pressure drop in the fluid. 27/11/15 During a throttling process. But internal and flow energies may be converted to each other. Thermodynamics I.

27/11/15 Thermodynamics I. 140 kPa 10C 43C Energy balance for the adiabatic mixing chamber in the figure is: The T-elbow of an ordinary shower serves as the mixing chamber for the hot.Mixing chambers 60C In engineering applications.CHEN2212 32 . the section where the mixing process takes place is commonly referred to as a mixing chamber.and the cold-water streams.

Heat losses from a hot fluid flowing through an uninsulated pipe or duct to the cooler environment may be very significant.CHEN2212 33 . 27/11/15 Energy balance for the pipe flow shown in the figure is Thermodynamics I.Pipe and duct flow The transport of liquids or gases in pipes and ducts is of great importance in many engineering applications. Pipe or duct flow may involve more than one form of work at the same time. Flow through a pipe or a duct usually satisfies the steady-flow conditions.

5 1. The specific enthalpy of the water entering. This leaves at 15 kg/s. (856 kJ/kg) The specific enthalpy of the steam leaving. The change in enthalpy per second. At the same time. Calculate the following.(4 J) ii. The water is heated and turned into steam.CHEN2212 27/11/15 The heat transfer rate. (37. A steady flow boiler is supplied with water at 15 kg/s. The gas is compressed with a mean force of 80 N which moves the piston 50 mm. (-1 J) iii. 3. i. 100 bar and 500oC. Calculate the following. The work done. (19. 100 bar pressure and 200oC. The mass flow rate is 0.9oC) Take cv as 718 J/kg K 2. Gas is contained inside a cylinder fitted with a piston. find the following. 5 kW of heat is transferred into the system.75 kW) 34 . (65.35 kW) Take cp as 1005 J/kg K.SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. The work transfer rate. The final temperature. The change in internal energy. (3373 kJ/kg) Thermodynamics I. i. The gas is at 20oC and has a mass of 20 g. A steady flow air compressor draws in air at 20oC and compresses it to 120oC at outlet. iii.35 kW) ii.7 kg/s. At the same time 5 Joules of heat transfer occurs out of the gas. (70. Using your steam tables. ii. i.

E. A water pump delivers 130 dm3/minute (0. and P. There is no measurable rise in temperature. A steam condenser is supplied with 2 kg/s of steam at 0. (860 W) 6. Ignoring K.42 kW) 5. A pump delivers 50 dm3/min of water from an inlet pressure of 100 kPa to an outlet pressure of 3MPa. calculate the work transfer rate. calculate the power supplied to the pump.13 m3/min) drawing it in at 100 kPa and delivering it at 500 kPa.CHEN2212 27/11/15 .07 bar and dryness fraction 0.9. i. Assuming that only flow energy changes occur. (4336 kW) 35 Thermodynamics I. The specific enthalpies at inlet and outlet.E. The steam is condensed into saturated water at outlet. (2331 kJ/kg and 163 kJ/kg) ii.4. (2. Determine the following. The heat transfer rate.

1 kJ/kg K 8. Calculate the heat transfer rate Φ. 0.7. Calculate the heat transfer.3 kg of gas is cooled from 120oC to 50oC at constant volume in a closed system.4 kW) Cp = 1.8 kJ)Cv = 0.2 kg/s of gas is heated at constant pressure in a steady flow system from 10oC to 180oC. 0. (37.8 kJ/kg. (-16.CHEN2212 36 . 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I.

CHEN2212 37 . Uzaldin Sadick AbdulHussain 27/11/15 Thermodynamics I. Dr.Thermodynamics I CHEN2212 Shukran … Prof.

however. or transient-flow. Most unsteady-flow processes can be represented reasonably well by the uniform-flow process. If they do. and thus the fluid properties do not change with time or position over the cross section of an inlet or exit. The shape and size of a control volume may change during an unsteadyflow process. processes. involve changes within the control volume with time. 27/11/15 Charging of a rigid tank from a supply line is an unsteadyflow process since it involves changes within the control volume.ENERGY ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY-FLOW PROCESSES Many processes of interest. Uniform-flow process: The fluid flow at any inlet or exit is uniform and steady. they are averaged and treated as constants for the entire process.CHEN2212 38 . Such processes are called unsteady-flow. Thermodynamics I.

The energy equation of a uniform-flow system reduces to that of a closed system when are closed.Mass balance Energy balance A uniformflow system may involve electrical.CHEN2212 27/11/15all the inlets and exits Thermodynamics 39 . shaft. and boundary work all at once.I.

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