13 views

Uploaded by Amit Kumar

SPSS

- ch03
- MB0024
- A Proactive Approach To Quantitative Measurement of Collision Risks in Port Waters
- 10 the Role of Service Marketing Mix and Its
- Duy Econometrics
- Gender, Class, And Social Desirability
- CHAPTER 1
- A review on the geographical distribution of UFO reports
- General Election Voter Poll June 2012
- SIA2_Ch02_07_APQuiz
- Finals Coverage Ba 174_ Notes on Analysis_ Nov. 8
- Why Have Measures of Earnings Quality Changed
- Cpa5 Management Accounting Mock1
- Regression
- Artigo Sharp - Energy Bench Marking
- US Federal Reserve: 200046pap
- Lecture - 7 Overview of or , LPP Graphical , Simplex
- Jurnal Sim
- B38_IJAER2015_Katulampa.pdf
- Penang.xlsx

You are on page 1of 28

Fast track PhD student, SLAI fellow, and

Research Assistant

University of Malaya

SPSS

Statistical Package/Product for Social

Sciences(Economics, Sociology, Population

Studies, and etc)- Subjects People/Society

Statistical Package/Product for

Sciences(SPS) (Health Sciences,

Neurosciences, Medical Sciences,

Economics, Sociology and etc)-Subjects

People/Society/Patients/Animals/Neurons

Rows Subjects, Columns Variables, Cells

Values/Statements

SPSS = Main Inputs (DV-views) X Outputs (Results)

Additional inputs (Scripts & Syntax)

Advantages

Deals with the process of quantifying qualitative data

Numerical presentation of qualitative data

(Descriptive and Inferential Statistics)

Deals with both parametric and non-parametric

approaches

Deals with Cross Sectional Data, Time Series Data,

and Panel Data

Rows

Menus

SPSS Layout

Cells

Icons

Columns

Will you be able to find the number

of rows and columns?

Data View

Variable View

Disadvantages

Doesnt deal with advanced mode of modeling

and quantitative techniques (Not possible by

menus)

Doesnt deal with the advanced techniques of

data type.(Not possible by menus)

Common measurement

(a)Categorical variable (CAV)-Nominal & Ordinal

(b)Continuous variable (COV)-Scale(Ratio & Interval)

(c) String Qualitative statements (Not important in

SPSS)-Nvivo, QDA-Miner, Dedoose, Atlas-TI, and

etc

categorical variable.

Classification variable-variable that is used to

classify qualitative arguments/statements

variable by categories (Categorical variable) +

variable by statements (Non-Categorical

variable)

Categorical variable

(a)Dichotomous variable (Binomial) 2 values

NO / OR Independent & Dependent samples

(b)Polychotomous variables (Multinomial)- >2

values NO/OR Independent & Dependent

samples

Categorical variable

(a)constant and fixed

(b)Separated by categories

(c)Gradual change = 0, static

(d)Nominal (X order) and Ordinal

(Order)/Rank

Continuous variables

(a)X constant and fixed

(b)Separated by ratios and intervals

(c)Gradual change !=0, dynamic

Types of Variables

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

(k)

(l)

(m)

(n)

(o)

(p)

(q)

(r)

Case and Control(0=Healthy, 1=Disease), Fluctuations(0=Increase, 1=Decrease.

Dichotomous variable = 2 groups of variables(can be any 2 values)

Examples:Gender(2=Male,3=Female), Case and control(0=Before Treatment,1=Present

Treatment)

Independent variable = stand alone variable-Cor x1,x2,x3 = 0 Predictor/Regressor/Indicator

Dependent variable = relying on factors Cory,x1,x2 !=0)-Predictand/Regressand/Outcome

Confounding variable = distorts the effects of one variable on another. -expansion of matching

reduces the effects of confounding.

Control variable controls the effects of IV on DV.

Controlled variable another term of Independent Variable(IV)

Instrumental variable variable that has zero correlation with residuals/error terms, but, has

correlation with dependent variable

Criterion variable a variable that has presumed effect Non-experimental research

Discrete variable a variable that takes up distinct values

Dummy variable similar as binary variable classification variable

Endogeneous variable inside the system-influenced by variables that are entering into the

system.

Exogeneous variable outside the system- entering the systm-influencing the endogeneous

variable

Interval variable a form of scale variable

Ratio variable a form of scale variable

Intervening variable intervene the association between the main variables. moderating and

mediating variables

Mediating variable Indirect effect on the association between the main variables

Moderating variable indirect effect through interaction effects between related variables

values/groups

(t)Manifest variable indicator variable that can

indicate the presence of latent variable

(u)Latent variable variable that cannot be measured

directly it has to depend on manifest variables.

(v)Manipulated variable Similar as IV

(w)Outcome variable Similar as DV-presumed effect

(x)Predictor variable Similar as IV-presumed cause

(y) Nominal variable takes up any value doesnt

follow orders/ranks

(z) Ordinal variable takes up values based on

orders/ranks.

* Treatment variable Similar as IV

(a)Time Series Data data follows the series of timing

single

country/industry/activity/firm/organization/stock

market/society and etc multiple sampling periods

(b) Cross Sectional Data data follows the cross

evaluations of various forms of

subjects(countries/industries/activities/firms)-single

point of time

(c) Panel Data Time Series Data + Cross Sectional

Data with different characteristics

(d) Pooled Data Combined version of data with

similar characteristics

(e) Longitudinal Data Wider scope of data variation

of timing

(a)Factual Data Demographical

Data(Marital Status, Level of Education,

Age, Position and etc)- (Experimental

and Non-experimental Data) Yes/No

versus Yes/No/Dont know Which one is more

preferable?

True or False

(b)Positive and Normative Data Actual

versus predicted, Agreement to

Disagreement, Likes to Dislikes

(c) Logical Arguments True or False

(d) Boolean Statements AND, OR, NOT

Scale(S)

LS != S

refers to ratio or

interval?

1=Strongly Agree

2=Agree

3=Neither Agree nor Disagree

4=Disagree

5=Strongly Disagree

The association between Sample and

Population can be seen in the context of

Donut

RVRCNB

Approach

Parameter = Population(Actual)

Statistics = Sample(Prediction)

Y=0 + 1X1 + 2X2 + (Parameter)

PY=P0 + P1X1 + P2X2 + P

(Statistics)

Statistics ~ Parameter (Actual

Population is Unknown)-estimated

Population

Statistics

*For quantitative mode of single/multi-purposes

*Descriptive = Describe + Narrative(Describing subjects) Single Purpose(SP)

*Inferential = Investigation + Narrative(Investigating subjects) Multi

Purposes(MP)

Descriptive Analysis Quantitative research

(a) Descriptive Statistics (Continuous variables)-[Mean, Median, Variance, Standard

deviation, Max, Min , Range, skewness, kurtosis, Standard error of mean,

Histogram with normal curve, Normal Q-Q plot, Normal P-P plot Uni-variate

(b)Frequency Distribution(Categorical variables)-[Mode(similar as frequency),

Median, Variance and Standard Deviation, Max, Min, Range]-Uni-variate

Inferential Analysis Quantitative research

(a) Normality tests -hypothesis testing SPSS(Shapiro Wilk and KolmogorovSmirnov)

(b)Non-normality tests hypothesis testing SPSS(One Sample Kolmogorov

Smirnov tests for uniform, Poisson, and Exponential distributions)-Others are

possible through Scripts and Syntax

(c) Mean differences Single mean test, One sample t-test, Two samples

(Independent and Dependent sample tests)

(d)Association Linear and Non-Linear modes of regressions

(e)

Correlation Linear and Non-Linear modes of correlations

Types of Samplings

What

type of

research

?

purposes..Purposive Sampling

Additional types of samplings

(a)Simple random sampling samples that have been

selected randomly-equal chance of probability

unbiased sampling

(b)Systematic sampling samples that have been

selected from ordered sampling frame

(c)Stratified sampling sampling mode that are divided

into homogeneous subgroups

(d) Cluster sampling sampling that deals with the

division of it into groups that deals with the similar

characteristics.

(e)Convenience sampling Easy sampling choose

groups of interest.

Samples

Dependent Samples Same subjects at

different levels (Very Highly Correlated)

Independent Samples Different

subjects at same and different levels.

Independent

(Low and Moderate

Correlations)

Sampl

e1

Populatio

n1

Populatio

n1

and Dependent

samples

Sampl

e2

Sampl

e3

Sampl

e 4

Introduction

The terms of parametric and nonparametric were coined by Jacob

Wolfowitz in the year of 1942.

Parametric (distribution is known)

Non-parametric (distribution is unknown)

In my point of view, I would say that it is just

a general thought of statistics and it

should be used as a benchmark or

baseline on the development of various

statistical modes of intellectual thoughts

on the statistical tests.

(a)Data follows the probability distribution

(b) Tied up with probability mode of sampling type (Simple random

sampling, Stratified random sampling, systematic random

sampling, random cluster, stratified random cluster, Complex

Multi-stage Random, Random mode of purposive sampling)

(c)Deals with the statistical inferences on the distributions of

parameters

(d) Always linked with linearity of data(variables and

errors/residuals(uncertainty))

(e) Patterns of data(variables and errors/residuals follows the style

of homogeneity)

(f) Follows strict forms of assumptions (robust = if the assumptions

are fulfilled)

I would classify this approach as the classical approach due to the

fact that it doesnt the evolutionary direction of momentum.

Assumptions of parametric

approach

(a)Linearity of parameters

(b)Homogeneity/Homogeneous mode of existing variables

and omitted variables(error terms/residuals)-symmetrical

form of distribution.

(c)Dependent variables /residuals should be normally

distributed.

(d) Randomness among the selected samples should be

maintained (only if it has got to do with random sampling)

(e)Expansionary use of non-categorical variables(continuous

variables) in the statistical tests.

(f) Minimization of outliers

(g) Mean, Mode, and Median of the variables are

approximately the same (for the case of normal

distribution)-Bell Shaped Normal Curve.

(h) Doesnt deal with the process of resampling(Bootstrapping)

an important step that should be taken

before moving to existing forms of

statistical tests.

Distributional tests are needed to determine

the nature of data(variables and residuals)

In a simple context,

Parametric follows normal distribution

Non-parametric follows free distribution

Graphical approach

(a)Histogram with normal curve

(b)Box plot

(c)Normal Q-Q plot

(d)Normal P-P plot

(e)Leverage Plot

Numerical approach

Uni-variate tests

(a)Jarque Bera test

(b)Coefficient of variations

(c)Coefficient of Skewness and Kurtosis

(d)Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

(e)Shapiro-Wilk test

(f)Shapiro-Francia test

(g)Anderson-Darling test

Multi-variate tests

(a)Multivariate tests of normality

(a)Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (Bivariate

analysis)

(b) Stepwise mode of linear regression (Multivariate analysis)

(c) Auxiliary mode of linear regression (Multivariate analysis)

(d) Scatter plot /Scatterplot matrix with fitness line(linear form)

(Bivariate analysis)

Non-parametric tests of correlation

(a)Spearman rank correlation (Bivariate analysis)

(b)Kendall Taus rank correlation (Bivariate analysis)

(c)Stepwise mode of Non-linear regression (Multivariate analysis)

(d)Auxiliary mode of Non-Linear regression (Multivariate analysis)

(e)Scatter plot/Scatterplot matrix with fitness line(Non-Linearity

form) (Bivariate analysis)

(a)Linear regression (Bivariate and Multivariate)

(b)Stepwise mode of Linear regression(Bivariate and Multivariate)

(c) Auxiliary mode of Linear regression(Bivariate and Multivariate)

(d)Linear mode of co-integration tests

(e)Linear mode of causality tests

Non-parametric tests of associations

(a)Non-Linear regression (Bi-variate and Multivariate)

(b)Logistic regression (LR) DV(categorical variable)

*Ordered LR (Ordinal variable)

* Un-ordered LR (Nominal variable)

(c) Correspondence Analysis

independent sample (Pearson Chi-Square, Contingency Coefficient

(Nominal),Phi-Cramers V(Nominal), Lambda (Nominal)

Inferential Statistics

Linear Regression

Parametric

Regression

Non-Parametric

Linear Curve

Estimation

Linear Weight

Estimation &

Different types of

estimation

Probit Regression

Non-Linear

Regression

Non-Linear Curve

Estimation

Non-Linear Weight

Estimation &

Different types of

estimation

Tobit Regression

Linear mode of

Scatter plot

Simultaneous

regression

Logit Regression

Non-Parametric

Regression

Non-Linear mode

of Scatter Plot

Non-Linear mode

of Simultaneous

equation

Parametri

c

correlatio

n

Pearson correlation

Linear Mode of

Stepwise Regression

Linear Mode of

Auxiliary regression

VIF & Tolerance

Value

- ch03Uploaded bypnarona
- MB0024Uploaded byPrashant Devale
- A Proactive Approach To Quantitative Measurement of Collision Risks in Port WatersUploaded byhani yam
- 10 the Role of Service Marketing Mix and ItsUploaded byVenkatesh Hegde
- Duy EconometricsUploaded byJennifer Kelley
- Gender, Class, And Social DesirabilityUploaded bydonnakishot
- CHAPTER 1Uploaded byChomat
- A review on the geographical distribution of UFO reportsUploaded byJulio
- General Election Voter Poll June 2012Uploaded byTaegan Goddard
- SIA2_Ch02_07_APQuizUploaded byVincent Casem
- Finals Coverage Ba 174_ Notes on Analysis_ Nov. 8Uploaded byTumblr_user
- Why Have Measures of Earnings Quality ChangedUploaded byEuniceChung
- Cpa5 Management Accounting Mock1Uploaded byWuon Maraga Rooney
- RegressionUploaded byTamilarasi Sasivarnam
- Artigo Sharp - Energy Bench MarkingUploaded byJoao Guilherme Candido Silva
- US Federal Reserve: 200046papUploaded byThe Fed
- Lecture - 7 Overview of or , LPP Graphical , SimplexUploaded bypresentationsite
- Jurnal SimUploaded byayyu purnama
- B38_IJAER2015_Katulampa.pdfUploaded byRobby Abdul Malik
- Penang.xlsxUploaded byDhanraj Venugopal
- WERD1400266.pdfUploaded byelezkm
- rrUploaded byram
- JEREMIAH-22911-MARK1124-GRACE-FAVORED-LOVED-THANKFUL.docxUploaded byJade Natividad
- hw5Uploaded byapi-453906666
- Bwardhana Intoduction to Quantitative MethodsUploaded byLailaturrahmi 'Ami'
- Stata Learning ModuleUploaded byalicorpanao
- 07542866Uploaded byManing Ballesteros
- bagian 1Uploaded byIranda Mariana
- IpanUploaded byElizalde Husband
- thesis Chapter 3 (mimi).docxUploaded byFatin Zetty

- 11719-Normalized q Scale Analysis Theory and BackgroundUploaded byasdss
- Phd Course Work Kadi Sarva Vishwa VidyalayaUploaded byDharmender Rathee
- Excel for Statistical Data AnalysisUploaded bypbp2956
- Simulation ProblemsUploaded byMousmi
- lecture_notes_ece5510_f09_all.pdfUploaded byRahul Dey
- Contact Stiffness Characteristics of Paper-Based Wet ClutchUploaded bykroushans
- ME cse new r-2013Uploaded byVanitha Vivek
- k q 2518641868Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Short Book Community Health.pdfUploaded bydya
- A Review of Basic Statistical Concepts 49259_ch_1.pdfUploaded bySimona
- Complete Statics Tools in ExcelUploaded byPreethi Prith
- OBoyle, Aguinis (2012, PP) - Normal DistributionUploaded byDan Spitaru
- R Studio Cheat Sheet for Math1041Uploaded byOliver
- Anova AnalysisUploaded bypenisficker
- Expanded steps for Example 2.3 from Pattern Recognition/4e by Theodoridis and KoutroumbasUploaded byheathhunnicutt
- Using Pert to Schedule and Control a ProjectUploaded byPeperZeaMays
- HlProbPrQ.docUploaded byKenneth Rono
- Narrowband NoiseUploaded byRajaganapathi Rajappan
- ISIUploaded byNguyễn Đức Hải
- Power by SimulationUploaded byMohammad Usaid Awan
- Statistical Static-Timing AnalysisUploaded byNikhil Puri
- Standard DeviationUploaded byZephie
- Power Prediction Model for Turning en-31 Steel Using Response Surface Methodology 2010Uploaded byraman8895
- PAPER Clásico WACKERMANN & EHM (2006). The dual klepsydra model of internal time representation and time reproduction.pdfUploaded byanettle
- ExamW08.pdfUploaded byJamie Samuel
- [Gastner] Density-Equalizing Map ProjectionsUploaded byairone_1988
- CHAPTER 1.docxUploaded byAllen DelaCruz Leonsanda
- Comparison of thermal insulative property of various provisional crown materialsUploaded bydoctanmay
- Chap 015Uploaded byVineel Kambala
- i b Maths Standard NotesUploaded byTongton Friend